The Value of Technology on Globalization

The effects of technology breakthroughs on globalization are creating immense transformations in the way corporations and industries organize their production, trade goods, invest capital, and develop new products, services, and processes. Specifically, advances in information technology and information systems have become a key component in the most U.S. industries global business strategies with the capability to communicate and process information in a digital form.

Any successful global business is going to have exceptional information technology and information systems to enable the world, and their company, to be more interconnected. This technology includes computers, mobile phones, hardware, software, and artificial intelligence. They provide the means to access information systems of other countries to easily communicate while also increasing a business’ ability to collect data and pursue their economic potential. With the introduction of the Internet and Internet-based tools, the way people share information and communicate globally has been easier than ever which is helping to fuel globalization. Therefore, hardware and software have been playing an important role in globalization by connecting people and systems across the globe. With the rise of artificial intelligence, there are computer systems that can perform tasks that would normally need human intelligence. This includes visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages. With these skills implanted into a computer system, it is easy to continue expansion overseas in a variety of different ways. A computer system that has visual perception, speech recognition, and decision-making skills help companies save time and money by expanding without the use and training of more employees. This makes it easier to develop business in other countries because there is less human error, fewer language barriers, and the system is set up to handle specific inquires relating to the location by systematic forward planning of strategy and task analysis. While these functions are beneficial, translation between languages can be especially helpful when a company’s global strategy includes business in a different part of the world that does speaks a different language. These information technologies “permit instantaneous communication among the far-flung operations of global enterprises.”

When a corporation or industry is in the global business sector, quick and reliable communication is key to running a business overseas. Due to the influx of new information technology, devices such as cell phones, networks, and personal computers have had a profound affect on the advancement of globalization. These advances have allowed companies to communicate more frequently and in more ways than ever before, making global business a much more accessible goal without having to worry about distance, time, or location. Instant messaging, email, and calling on mobile phones allow employees to reach one another across time zones and continents to conduct business efficiently and effectively. Computer networks allow global companies to provide universal, immediate services whenever necessary. An example of this would be when a customer submits a request that is then transferred across the globe. This is done without the customer’s awareness that the work for their case is being done on the other side of the world due to the efficiency of this system. Due to advancing information technology and systems, time and distance independence is an achievable goal for any global business.

According to the published work The Globalization of Information Technology in Multinational Corporations from the Information Management Journal, the goal of information technology is:

“To create globally integrated information infrastructures that electronically link their entire supply chains — their sales, production, and delivery processes — into one seamless flow of information across national borders and time zones, with both real-time and store-and-forward access to information from any location (Stephens 1999)”.

Advanced information technology and systems lead to globalization, which, in turn, produce a more competitive global business. For many companies to maintain a competitive edge in the global business markets it is essential for these businesses to integrate their information systems and technology infrastructures on an international basis. Information technology and information systems are the driving force of globalization and will continue connecting people and businesses to provide products and services to customers around the world.

Apple’s New Products – Get Ready for Red

Apple wants you to see “red”, and hopefully buy one too.

The tech giant is releasing a new red phone hoping to capitalize on a vibrant color scheme that could appeal to its huge base of consumers.

The red phones are available in both iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus models. They feature a crimson aluminum finish.

The phones come in 128GB and 256GB storage variations. Pricing is inline or perhaps a little higher than other iPhone versions.

The 128GB version sells for $749. The iPhone 7 Plus goes for $869. Those enrolled in the iPhone Upgrade Program will be able to land one for $37 per month.

Apple has had a decade-long (RED) campaign, which contributes to the Global Fund to fight AIDS. Apple said it’s the world’s largest corporate donor to the Global Fund, contributing more than $130 million. The red phone is said to be a piece of this strategy. The company will donate some money to the charity for each phone sold.

Fans of Apple were recently surprised too with the announcement of a new iPad. It replaces the Air 2 already on the market. It has a 9.7 inch retina display Apple is known for. It comes with a 64-bit A9 chip and 10 hours of battery life.

The iPad has many features Apple fans like such as Fingerprint, TouchID security. It comes with the ability to download and utilize over one million apps specifically for the device.

Also included is an 8-megapixel camera to shoot detailed images or 1080 HD video. Editing can be done them right on the iPad with Photos, iMovie, or an app from the App Store.

Pricing for the new iPad begins at $329 for a 32GB model. It can go up to a $559 for a model which has 128GB with cellular capability.

On a smaller scale, the iPhone SE is getting a boost in storage. Apple is phasing out the 16GB and 64GB models but doubling their storage capacities to 32GB and 128GB. The 4 inch screen phone is getting a little more powerful while the price remains the same at around $399.

Also of note is a new app called Clips. It is a free app and helps users combine video clips, photos and music to be shared through messages and social media. Clips will be available soon on iOS 10.3, with “artistic filters” shapes and emojis.

According to Apple, Clips will automatically recognize people in a video and suggest them as recipients of messages. The app then pulls in elements that are popular in Instagram, Snapchat, Vine, Google Photos and others.

The newer devices, and lower priced iPad, are indications that Apple is redefining some products and the pricing structure. This new strategy takes direct aim at many lower priced competitors. The end result could leave much of the competition not only seeing red, but a lot more.

Computer Programming Degrees – How to Find an Accredited Technical School

A computer programming degree can lead to a career in the publishing industry, securities, commodity contracts, and financial investments, computer and electronic product manufacturing, utilities, chemical manufacturing, telecommunications, and scientific and technical services. Computer programmers may earn anywhere from $38,460 per year for entry-level positions to $106,610+ per year for
top-level positions. Most top-level professionals have a bachelor’s degree or higher in computer science.

To get started on a career as a computer programmer, you should enroll in an accredited computer science program or business program with a technology focus. You can earn your bachelor’s degree in computer science by enrolling in any number of traditional or online programs. A number of traditional colleges offer on-campus, blended, or 100 percent online programs, while others may offer traditional programs with a small percentage of classes available online. Top online colleges such as University of Phoenix and DeVry University offer computer programming degrees 100 percent online.

Before enrolling in any program, whether on-campus or online, you should check to make sure the program is accredited by an agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education (Ed.gov). The top accrediting agencies for both traditional and online schools include:

-Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)
-Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP)
-Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA)
-Distance Education and Training Council (DETC)
-Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (regional)
-New England Association of Schools and Colleges (regional)
-North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (regional)
-Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (regional)
-Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (regional)
-Western Association of Schools and Colleges (regional)

In addition to making sure the program is accredited, review the curriculum and admissions requirements. All computer programming degree programs should have a similar curriculum requirement. Traditional computer programming curriculum are still the standard in the academic world. All programs should require official transcripts, an admissions application, official test scores, recommendation letters, and an application essay.

VPN Authentication and Encryption

The fundamentals of creating a VPN are Authentication, strong Encryption and a method of secure Key Exchange. Authenticate the users, securely exchange keys for encryption then encrypt the data using the generated keys.

Authentication is used to validate a users identity using one or more of a number of methods:

Something you have – can be a key card, a security pass, drivers license, a passport or similar. The possession of one of the above items is usually enough to confirm the identity of the holder. The problem with this is that the device can be lost or stolen, and sometimes used by other persons.

Something you know – a password, pass phrase or some other known information that can be used to calculate function from a secret message.

Something you are – A physical characteristic of your body such as your finger print, the retina print of your eye or your DNA.

Encryption is a means of taking some plain readable text into a cipher text utilizing some form of algorithmic mapping. The intended receiver of such a cipher text must have the means to reverse the process by knowing the same algorithm, but an attacker cannot know the process.

Encryption systems must use mathematically complex algorithms so as to provide a good enough deterrent from attackers to be able to use some brute force method of calculating the algorithm in use. Two common methods of encryption are Symmetric Encryption Systems and Public Key Encryption Systems:

Symmetric encryption simply uses an identical key for encryption of the plain text and decryption of the cipher text. and decryption at both ends. The encryptor applies the key to the plain text data which results in a cipher text. The decryptor reverses the by applying the same key to the cipher text to reveal the plain text data. The most common symmetric encryption system is the Data Encryption Standard (DES), of which there are several variations.

Public Key Encryption systems are a lot more complex than symmetric encryption systems such as DES and depend upon mathematical functions that are often referred to as “trap-door” functions. They involve complex mathematical formulae which normally involve exponentiation to high powers, modular arithmetic and the products of large prime numbers. The algorithms yield an encryption mechanism and an encryption key which can be made public and a decryption algorithm and decryption key that is kept secret. The mathematics of the algorithms is so complex that it is not possible to deduce the decryption mechanism from the encryption mechanism alone.

Computer Programming Degree Study Options

The opportunity to earn a degree in computer programming is available to students who wish to enter a career in a variety of fields. Students can train for an exciting career by enrolling in an accredited educational training program. There are a number of schools and colleges that allow students to pursue a career designing, maintaining, testing and working with various computer programs. Students can study at an associate’s, bachelors, or master’s degree level.

Associate Degree
Students can gain the skills needed to enter into a number of careers with an accredited associate’s degree in computer programming. Gaining an education at this level typically takes two years of study. Students will have the chance to study a variety of subjects including programming, JavaScript, desktop publishing, web-based programming, object-oriented programming, data structure, and much more. By obtaining an accredited associate level degree in this field students’ can pursue various careers. Career opportunities include computer programmer, computer software engineer, computer support specialist, and much more. Students who obtain an associates degree can enter the workforce or enroll in a bachelor’s degree program.

Bachelor Degree
Training for a bachelor’s degree in computer programming can be done in as little as four years. By enrolling in an accredited bachelors degree program students can train for a variety of careers. Possible employment could include working as computer software engineers, system analysts, computer engineers, computer programmers, systems managers, computer consultants, and more. In order to pursue a career in this field students’ need to study courses like computer languages, database programming, computer systems security, data transfer systems, Visual BASIC, and many other related subjects. With an accredited bachelors degree training program students will be prepared to begin their career or enroll in a master’s degree training program.

Masters Degree
Pursuing an accredited master’s degree in computer programming can be done by completing an additional two years of study. Students can gain the knowledge and skills needed to enter their desired career by studying C++, software design, prototype testing, operating systems, web design, multimedia, and many other relevant subjects. By training at a masters degree level of study students will have the skills to pursue a number of careers in the field. An accredited master’s degree will allow for employment in game art and design, website development, video game design, and many other computer related career areas. With a masters degree students can pursue the career of their dreams.

Students who enroll in an accredited educational degree training program will ensure that they receive a quality education. Agencies like ABET, Inc. are available to provide proof of a schools ability to provide the best education possible. Students can learn more about their desired degree by contacting educational programs of interest. Accredited degree study options are available to provide students with the training they need to succeed in their desired career. Start the path to the career of your dreams by enrolling in a program today.

Computer Programming – A Career Overview

Computer programming training is considered by most employment forecasters to be one of the best educational tracks with regards to career outlook in the future. An education in computer programming, whether through a traditional college degree program or a certification class, can open up many doors for job-seekers looking to secure employment in this rapidly changing field.

What is Computer Programming?

The science of programming – and it IS a science – involves developing and inputting the set of instructions that computers use to function, as well as resolving problems and conducting logical tests within the system. Every company utilizes some type of computer system these days, and although the role of the computer programmer is largely dependent on the type of company that he/she works for, the position is always a professional one due to the enormous amount of responsibility.

Over the years, computer programming has changed drastically as technology evolves, and computer programmers have been at the very forefront of that change. In essence, computer programmers are charged with instructing computers how to think by inputting a series of algorithms and other data, and making changes to those formulas when problems arise.

What Are the Requirements for Computer Programming?

Different types of programming require varying levels of time and expertise. Simple programs can usually be written within a matter of hours, while more complex programs can take years to complete. Either way, the computer programmer must be proficient in the language of programming and be able to resolve problems “on the fly” using logical thinking and sequencing.

According to one of the more popular career sites, most computer programming positions require at least a Bachelor of Science in a computer-related field, but there are some professional programmers who have learned and perfected their skills through work-related experience only, instead of a formal degree program. Regardless of entry-level educational requirements, however, most programmers find they need to consistently seek out new training and certification opportunities in order to stay abreast of the current technology.

If you’re a creative, logical person who enjoys working as part of a team to solve problems, computer programming can be a fantastic way to earn a great living.

Digital Signature and Certificate

When we think of VPNs, often our first thought is that of encryption of the user data. But adversaries or those intent on reading the data could However an attacker could record a conversation and then replay the replies between to participants. What we need to do is to be able to ensure the source of the data is genuine, and that is where digital signatures and certificates comes in.

To construct a Digital Signature, public key encryption systems must be in place. The construction of the Digital Signature entails applying a hash function to the message by concatenation of the message with a known secret key and then applying a mathematical function which will produce a fixed length output known as the digest. The digest is then encrypted with the public decryption key which produces a signature that can be appended to the message to verify that the message is from the genuine source.

The receiver recalculates the hash function and compared with the signature after applying the public key. If the two match, then because only the originator could have known the hash function and the private key, the message must be genuine.

Message Digest algorithms use Hash functions to map many potential inputs to each of a large number of outputs. What is normally produced is a fixed length field, typically a few hundred bits in length. A secret key is shared between sender and receiver and by concatenating this with a message for transfer, the digest is produced.

MD5 (Message Digest 5) is probably the most common hash function used, and it produces a 128 bit digest which is often appended to the header before the packet is transmitted. Any change in the message will cause the digest to change, and even the source and destination IP addresses can be used together with the message contents when creating the digest, which validates the addresses.

Another popular hashing algorithm is SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) that produces a 160 bit digest ensuring greater security than MD5.

It doesn’t matter how long the digest is, an identical digest will always result for an identical packet. But anyone wishing to attack the system could monitor exchanges and determine which packets sent in what ever order would result in some known result. This result could therefore be reproduced by replay of the messages. This is known as a collision attack.

HMAC (Hash-based Message Authentication Code) can be used to combat collision attacks by including two calculated values know as ipid and opid, which are initially calculated using the secret key for the first packet and recalculated for subsequent packets. The values are stored after each packet and recovered for use in the calculation of the digest for the next packet. This ensures that the digest is always different even for identical packets.

A Digital Certificate is produced using some known information such as name, address, mother’s maiden name, house number, National Insurance number, or indeed anything. This information is appended to the public key and then used as part of the hash function to create the digest which is then encrypted using the private key through a secure encryption system such as RSA or AES.

A Digital Certificate can be validated by passing it through the public encryption process with the public key for the user to yield the digest. This can be compared with the calculation of the digest from the claimed identity of the user and their public key. If the two calculations yield the same result then the certificate is valid. Digital certificates are appended to messages to verify the authenticity of the source of the message.

Computer Programming: Chapter: 01 – Introduction

Introduction

Before you jump in and start learning a programming language, it will be helpful to you if you understand what is programming and how it works, including some programming terminology.

A computer on its own is just a useless box. It’s nothing but a bunch of different hardware items assembled into a single unit. At this point, these hardware items either together or individually are of no use. This is as good as a Car that has been assembled. Is the car of any use without fuel? In the same way, we need to provide the computer with fuel, in this case its electricity (though there existed some types of mechanical computers, here we are referring to electrical machines). A computer at this point is essentially just a big bunch of tiny electronic switches that are either on or off. Now this is as good as a Car with enough fuel and can be driven, but no driver to drive.

We need a driver, who can operate the steering wheel, gears, breaks, etc., which will make the car move around. In the same way by setting different combinations of these switches, you can make the computer do something, for example, play a video on the screen or play a music video through the computer speakers or open a file, etc. Now telling a computer when to switch on these switches and when to switch off them is in other words nothing but instructing a computer what to do. This is what Programming is in very simple words.

Programming often refers to computer programming. So this now brings to our first and important question!

What is Programming?

Computer programming commonly known as programming or coding is the art of making a computer do what you want it to do. Programming in very simple terms is about writing programs. A sequence of instructions written to perform a specified task for a computer is known commonly as a Program, but is also referred to as a Software Program or even Computer Program. A computer being just hardware requires instructions to act upon. These instructions are executed in the computes CPU.

Programming is planning how to solve a problem. No matter what method is used — pencil & paper, slide rule, adding machine, or a computer — problem solving requires planning.

Based on the above definition, Programming is planning how to solve a problem. So here we are not actually solving the problem, but the computer will do it for us. If we solve the problem ourselves, then there is no necessity to write a program and hence, we don’t require a computer isn’t it.

Then why do we need a computer, simply because we know how to solve a problem and also know to instruct a computer to do it for us, but cannot do it at the speed & accuracy with which a computer can do it. Also we get Tired & Bored of doing the same job again and again, but the computer can do the same job a zillion times at the same speed & accuracy as the first one without getting bored or tired.

We can take a simple example of calculating the Sum of all even numbers from 1 to 1,000,000. This is not something that we cannot do, but the time that is required to calculate, the possibility of making a mistake at some point of time, amount of resources required if we use a pen and a paper or a calculating machine, and other similar reasons make this an undesirable option. Over & above this, what if we need to calculate between different set of numbers again and again? It is difficult humanly. But by writing a program, we can achieve this in less than 5 minutes. At the same time we can keep running the same program again and again for doing any number of calculations and also we can get accurate results in seconds.

I can instruct the computer to take each number, Add it with the next and from there on Add every next number to the previous sum till we reach the upper limit specified. Don’t look at these instructions for its accuracy, but what you need to understand here is that, I can instruct a computer to solve a problem only if I know how to do it. This means that unless I know the solution to the problem, it’s of no use even to try solving one.

You can take an example of a Cab driver on the street, but who is new to the city. With this cab driver, we cannot simple get into the car and ask him to drive to Point A. We will have to give him proper instructions on the route that he needs to take to reach the destination. I can give him the instructions on the route only if I know how. Otherwise, it will be a futile effort.

In the same way there is no point even trying to write a program until you have the knowledge of how you are going to set about solving the problem.

Put in simple words, Programming is telling a computer what to do. Though it seems to be pretty simple, it’s very complicated. You will have to keep in mind about two things here:

The very important point here is that Computers don’t speak English. Since a Computer being a machine only understands two basic concepts: on and off. The on and off concept is called binary system with on representing 1 and off representing 0. Hence Computer knows only one language that is of 0’s and 1’s commonly known as binary language.

The second important thing is that your instructions should be PRECISE. As I have mentioned previously, a computer on its own is just a useless box. It’s nothing but a bunch of different hardware items assembled into one unit.

So if you have to instruct a computer, then you have to tell them PRECISELY what to do.

Now I hope you have got to know the complexity in Programming.

Introduction to Computer Programming and Programming Languages

Since computer science was recognized as a distinct academic field in 1960s, it has made great strides especially in making things a lot easier for humans. One of the issues it has solved is the way problems that need to be addressed have been translated into a code or format computers can understand. There are various ingenious and great solutions used in such problems. Here’s an introduction to computer programming that will give you a greater understanding of this exciting discipline.

In order to pass on instructions to computers, programming languages are used. These languages, which are designed by humans, are based on the so-called rules of syntax and semantics. These days, a wide range of languages have been made, employed, discarded.

Programming languages usually don’t last that long. They come up but after just a few years of stay in the industry, you will feel that the language needs some improvement or you need something your chosen language can’t provide. It won’t be long until that particular language is replaced by a more flexible successor.

Programming languages do evolve because there’s a continuous search for efficient transformation of human language into machine code. Languages produced usually start with ideas, which conceal hardware and employ representations that are more convenient to human programmers. Another crucial facet of language design is dealing with the program’s complexity. As programs become bigger and more refined, developers have come to realize that there are language types that are easier to support in huge systems. Because of this, event-driven and object-oriented languages became widely used.

Types of Programming Languages: An Overview

Since this field is evolving, there is no set standard in categorizing programming languages. One way to characterize them is through programming paradigm. These classifications include:

o Object-Oriented

Object-oriented programming isn’t just the newest; it is also the most powerful among the paradigms. In programs that are object-oriented, the designer indicates the data structures as well as the categories of operations that can be done on it. The combination of data and operations that can be carried out is dubbed as an object.

o Procedural

Procedural programming involves a list of actions a program needs to accomplish to be able to attain certain goal. This is a simple paradigm wherein a program is divided into a starting phase, list of operations that needs to be done, and ending stage. Also called imperative programming, procedural programming involves the idea of procedure call.

o Structured

A unique type of procedural programming, structured programming offers additional tools that can be used to deal with the issues produced by larger programs. In structured programming, the program is split into small codes that can easily be understood. Oftentimes, structured programming is associated with top-down approach which starts with an overview of the system.

Computer programming languages are artificial and are made to manage computers. To come up with new and better language, the developer needs to spend hard work and long working hours. With this introduction to computer programming, you’ve become familiar with the various types of languages based on paradigms.

Why Should You Learn Computer Programming?

Computer programming isn’t just about building the next cool app, or about creating a killer web site – it’s about planning, discipline, and problem solving, as well as a good introduction to the wonderful world of logic.

Even for people who are never destined to actually make a career out of telling a computer what to do, there are some great advantages to be had by acquiring the skills needed to actually do it.

Before looking at the three key skills that are common to all forms of programming – planning, problem solving and logic – it’s worth recounting a little anecdote about the misconception that programmers have to be engineers, or at the very least, good at mathematics.

There was a time when computers were the size of a house, and communicated with the programmers using little bits of cards and ticker tape. If they went wrong, someone had to repair the valves (yes, valves), and it saved a lot of time if that person was also the programmer.

Fast forward a few years, and applicants for Universities across the UK wanting to study Computer Science wondered what kinds of subjects they might need to study in order to be accepted onto the course.

Medical students needed a grounding in human biology, those wanting to study astrophysics had better know their mathematics and have at least a basic idea of the more advanced laws of physics.

For computer science students, it was easier. No special knowledge is really required.

Learning Planning through Computer Programming

It is said that the best way to appreciate subject matter is to teach it to someone else. This being the case, the best way to appreciate how to do something well is to break it down into successively smaller steps until the whole process is laid bare.

With knowledge of all the components, estimates of time and cost can then be applied, as well as the various checks and balances that will prove that what has been done has been done correctly, and is the correct thing to have done in the first place.

This is as true of building a block of flats as it is a computer program.

Computer Programming as an Introduction to Problem Solving

Some things just don’t seem possible at first glance. No doubt the idea that every page on the internet could be indexed, and then searched in real time was considered to be a bit of a pipe dream by some.

However, knowing that a computer is just a thing that can interpret commands leads the programmer to be able to find a way to solve just about any problem. And if there aren’t any obvious solutions, the brain has a way of being able to think laterally and at least find a workaround.

The basis of this is known as logic.

Basic Logic in Computer Programming

This is really the only “sciency” bit of programming left. Logic essentially allows you to hand the decision making process over to the computer, and force it to perform different actions depending on the various conditions it encounters.

There are also logic constructs that let the programmer repeat actions, as well as choose actions, and ways that various lists of instructions can be re-used for different tasks, depending on how they are invoked.

Seeing the entire domain as a set of interacting objects in this way is a fundamental transferable skill that computer programming teaches.

In fact, all of these skills are transferable. Computer programming is one big set of transferable skills; and that’s probably the best reason there is to learn Computer Programming.

Considering a Career in Computer Programming

As long as technology continues to develop, the demand for trained and skilled professionals in the IT sector will continue to thrive. Businesses and industries are always searching for professional programmers in departments like administration, security, and management. The growth of the Internet has seen a rise in wireless operations, networks, and client/server developments. With technology rapidly changing, the need for computer programming jobs is expected to increase to fulfill the growing demand.

As a programmer, your responsibilities evolve continuously. When choosing a computer programming degree, look for a course that is up to date with latest developments, advancements and equipment. In order to succeed, programmers need to constantly brush up their skills and knowledge in the field. Job applicants can also enhance their chances in the competitive job market by becoming certified in various languages. Many computer programming degrees also train their students for relevant certifications.

So, what exactly do computer programmers do? In short, they develop the instructions and languages that computers need to function smoothly. These functions could range from a short program to a lengthy process that could take a few years to create and implement. Programmers are also responsible for testing systems for errors and resolving issues and problems that may crop up. This process involves the use of complex technological codes or languages. Most programmers know and specialize in a variety of languages. Programmers may also be called to write manuals and instructions for other program users of a particular system or mainframe.

Many computer programmers work on a contractual basis or independently as consultants. Companies that require professionals specializing in a particular language or application may then outsource the job to computer programming consultants. Contracts could run into a few weeks to more than a year so commitment levels on such jobs are extremely demanding and high.

Programmers can be categorized into applications programmers or systems programmers. Applications programmers are those that create and modify programs for a specific purpose or cause. Systems programmers on the other hand work on a larger scale and deal with developing computer networks and operating systems. They are responsible for the effective functioning of computer hardware as well. With the rise in software packages, a new breed of software development programmers has emerged. They work with other programmers in order to create customized or packaged software such as games and other programs used for financial management and educational purposes.

Computer programmers account for nearly one and half million jobs and the numbers continue to grow. Computer programmers are required in telecommunications, management, education, the government and finance, to name a few. If a degree in computer programming is what you think you want to do, you can be sure of one thing – there’s a bright and lucrative future for such candidates.

Digital Signal Processing

To keep the levels constant you’ve done everything you can think of. You’ve tried fixing the amplifier, and placed speakers in strategic positions. However, you still couldn’t reduce the eco. You can hear background noise and feedback. To combat these sound quality issues there is a simple solution – DSP.

We take a look at some of the fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing.

What is DSP?

Digital Signal Processors (DSP) take real-world signals like audio, video, voice, temperature, position or pressures that are digitized and then accurately manoeuvre them. It is designed for performing mathematical functions like subtract, add, divide and multiply very quickly.

How they work

Signals from real world sources are converted by Digital Signal Processing into digital data that can then be analyzed. The signals will be usually in analog form. Study is performed in digital form because when we reduce a signal to numbers its mechanism can be manipulated in more detail than when they are from real world sources.

The digital data can be converted into an analog signal with enhanced quality when the DSP has completed its work. A DSP can intensify frequencies, sort noise from a signal, and hold back others.

Types of Audio Signal Processors

Signal processors can be single- or multi-functional, digital or analog, or incorporated with other components in a sound system. Most were unconnected devices, but became multi-functional over time with digital signal processors integrating a wide range of functions at a fraction of the cost of individual processors.

The problem-solving features in DSPs today are Gain Control and Volume, Equalization, Filters, Compressors, Dynamics Processor, Expanders and Noise Gates, Limiters, Delay, Speech Leveller, Gated Automatic Mixers, Automatic Microphone Mixers, and Feedback Reducers.

Although you can find it everywhere it is an extremely refined chip technology. DSP chips are used in fax machines, sound cards, modems, high-capacity hard disks, cellular phones, and digital TVs. In 65% of the world’s digital cellular phones, DSPs are used as the engine. This number will only increase with the increase in wireless applications. Digital signal processing is used in many fields including music processing, sonar, biomedicine, radar, speech, and seismology, communications and imaging.

What DSP Can Do

You need to consider some of the most common problems you face in sound reinforcement to determine whether DSP can help your sound system. The DSP tools can remedy many problems if you have reasonably good room acoustics. If you have poor tone quality by using graphic equalizer, a DSP tool, you can rectify the problem. Similarly, DSP tools like Downward Expander, Delay, Compressor, and Automatic Mixer can rectify problems like unwanted noise, frequency response problems, sound source too loud, and feedback, respectively.

What DSP Can’t Do

Adding DSP to your system isn’t an alternative for subsequent conventional sound support rules. For instance, audio processing will not prevent echo. DSP has no effect once sound energy is released by the loudspeaker. The problem will only become worse if you raise the level of the sound system.

Computer Programming For Beginners – The Right Approach

Computer programming is one of the most interesting subjects on earth if you will just take the right approach. Unlike those major subjects in schools, programming should be treated differently. Programming for beginners require that the wannabe programmer has full understanding on how it is done and what the basics of are.

What is Computer Programming?

Programming is simply telling a computer to do a task. It is very much like teaching a toddler how to add numbers. In programming individuals, we usually employ several languages the person can understand like English or French. In the same way, writing a computer program requires humans to employ languages that can be read by the computer such as C, Pascal, Java, and Python.

Human languages are very complex, however human beings learn to use them because of our intelligence. On the other hand, computers are not so smart; the language used in instructing them is quite simple. This is the reason why it’s fun and easy for a human being like you to learn one or several computer programming languages. Once you become familiar with even one computer language, it will be much easier for you to learn another.

Things to Consider When Writing a Computer Program

1. Set up the logic of the program.

Logic is considered the backbone of any program. It needs to be prepared based on the resources your chosen programming language allow. Preparing the logic must be done prior to the real coding process. You should make a flow chart for your program, or write its algorithm before you start with the process of writing the program.

2. Split the programs into functions.

The majority of the programs let you break the program into functions. These functions need to be written with the least number of instructions. They must be designed in such a way that they can be reused over and over again.

3. Study the syntax of every command you’ll use.

One of the reasons for most programming errors is improper use of syntax. There are many programs that have features that can be used to check the syntax of each command as well as integral functions that you want to utilize.

4. Make sure your code is short.

The fewer the number of instructions the faster the rate of execution of the program. Most of the time, we use complex logic in getting a task done. Little do we know that this task can easily be performed if we utilize the built-in functions of the programming language. To avoid these problems, you should have enough knowledge of all the inbuilt functions available in the program.

5. Be sure that variable names and functions are logical.

Proper names used in functions and variables make the coding process simpler. While using illogical variable names won’t impede the program’s functionality, it will make it harder for you to enhance or modify this code afterwards.

Aside from learning various programming languages, computer programming for beginners involves familiarization of the above-mentioned tips. So you better put these things in mind if you want to pursue a career in programming.

Learn Computer Programming – You Can Do It!

Almost anyone can learn to program. There are only a few requirements (like having access to a computer), and you don’t have to be a genius. (Well… it helps if you are a genius, I suppose, but you don’t HAVE to be one).

This article addresses some of the motivations you might have for wanting to learn to program computers, looks at some things to consider, and discusses a few different ways to start learning now!

What is it you want to do?

There are a lot of reasons for wanting to learn computer programming, and what you want to do with it can help guide you in choosing your path in learning. Perhaps you are interested in programming as a career. In that case you will want to make sure you are learning things that will make you attractive to those who hire programmers. On the other hand, you might just be looking for a fascinating hobby, and in that case you can let be a bit more casual about what you learn and focus only on things that interest you.

Maybe you need to automate various applications you use at work. For example, perhaps you want to automate a word processor to do mailing labels or a spreadsheet to do customized financial forecasting, or maybe you want to write computer games, or have a cool web site, or… the reasons are endless, just as the things you can do with a computer are.

The languages you learn will be influenced by these things, as well as the approach you will want to take as you begin to learn to do computer programming.

What resources do you have available?

Time, money, people who can help guide you, computers, books, programming clubs, classes, programming forums… these are all resources that will be handy as you are learning to program.

If you have a lot of time and money, a computer, and access to learning opportunities like college classes and developer group meetings, you will probably be able to learn at a rapid pace. If you can only spend an hour or so each day, and you don’t have your own computer, and you can only buy one or two books, you will have to adjust your expectations a bit. However, either way, or somewhere in-between, you will be able to learn to program.

What is the level of your motivation?

This is a very important consideration. This isn’t going to be easy. You are going to need to keep going even when things seem impossible and you can’t find the answers you need. It takes a fair amount of brain power, will power, and the ability to work things out. You will be well served if you can muster a “stick-it-out” kind of attitude.

One of the attractions of computer programming is that there is a lot of problem solving, and you will have to solve a lot of them both while you are learning as well as when you are using your skills to do useful things. It takes a lot of interest and dedication to stick with it long enough to get somewhere – if this still sounds good to you, you will probably do okay.

So, how to get started?

There are a lot of ways to go about getting started. You can get started today, regardless of how you are going to approach this over the long run. Here are a few tips on getting started quickly:

* Learn in baby steps – Start with something very easy, and add to it. There is no advantage to jumping in with both feet unless you have unlimited time and resources.

* The quickest way to start might be to use a language that comes with software you already have. For example, you can do a great deal of programming in Microsoft Word using Visual Basic for Applications. There are numerous commercial software applications that include a way to enhance them using programming or scripting languages.

* Here is another idea for getting started quickly: There are simple languages available with almost every operating system (Windows, Linux, Mac) for automating your repetitive tasks. For example, in Windows you can use VBScript. Again – a simple internet search will get you lots of information.

* Pick a more full featured language that is available free – To get started with the least expense and as quickly as possible, one approach is to download a programming environment for free on the internet. For example, you can download the Ruby language and everything you need to work with it for free. Another example is the Microsoft .NET Express languages (VB.NET or C# are good choices) – again, you can download everything you need for free from Microsoft. A little internet search on either “Ruby Language” or “Microsoft .NET Express” will get you all the info you need.

* Use the internet – You already know this or you wouldn’t be reading this article, but the internet is full of resources to help you learn to program. That makes sense, since the internet has been created and programmed by programmers. A lot of programmers are willing to share their knowledge through free tutorials, forums, tips sites, and articles. You will find links to a lot of good resources just by doing a simple search. One thing is certain, there is no shortage of information.

* Work with what you have, or what you can easily get – To get started quickly, my advice is to do something right away and keep doing something every day. Soon you will be better able to judge what areas are most interesting to you and best fit your needs, as well as where to get the information you need to keep progressing.

* Buy used books – Many of the book sellers on the internet now offer used books through a network of thousands of book re-sellers and private individuals. You can save a lot of money this way.

* Once you get started, write simple programs that help you automate something that is wasting your time. For example, if at the end of every day you make a backup of the files you worked on during the day by copying the files “by hand” to a cd, you could write a program that automatically searches your working folders and copies the files for you – without you having to do anything. The extra time you get from each little helper program you write is time you can use to learn more about programming.

* Find a computer programmers “user group” somewhere near you. Almost all larger cities have such groups that meet on a regular basis – usually monthly. Many of these meetings are free, and usually they provide presentations on “how-to” do various programming tasks. They often also have study groups and beginners sessions. Not all languages are represented in all cites – but anything is better than nothing, so it can be worthwhile to attend any meeting of this sort that you can find that is within a reasonable distance.

* Take a beginners course at a local community college or extended studies program. These classes are usually offered at a very reasonable cost, and will help you get started. I have found a number of these classes available on line – and if you are eligible for entry, it can be very convenient to take a course this way.

It’s time to get started

Programming can be fun, challenging, useful, and profitable. Not everyone has the nature or interest to become a full-time programmer, but almost anyone who can use a computer can learn to do something useful or fun with computer programming. If you think it is something you might enjoy, then I encourage you to give it a try and see what it’s all about. It is going to take time and dedication to become proficient, but it all starts with a single step. So now is the time.

Computer Programming: Chapter: 02 – Know the Basics

In the previous article Computer Programming: Chapter: 01 – Introduction, I spoke about what is programming and ended it by saying that computers do not understand English or for that matter any language we humans speak. I said that computers only understand the language of 0’s and 1’s.

If you have used a computer for any purpose till now, you will not agree with me, since you have been using it mostly in English or any other language that you know. You would have watched movies, listened to songs, created documents, sent e-mails, browsed lot of sites and even you would have read my articles in one of the human readable languages. Also if you have written a program or even seen somebody doing it, you might have noticed that even they have not been using the language of 0’s and 1’s.

Even if you agree that there are people who knows this language of 0’s and 1’s, looking at the second important point I said that “The instructions should be PRECISE”, you might be wondering that it will be next to impossible to even write a simple computer program, if what I am saying is true.

Today, to use a computer you need not know how a computer works or what language does it speak? All you need to do is simply turn on a computer and when it is ready use the mouse and keyboard to point at some little graphical object on the screen, click a button, Swipe a finger or two in case of a touch screen device to get a computer to do what is required of it. An example would be what you need to read this article.

The reason computers are so easy to use today because of the hard work of some programmers who have programmed for it to behave in a certain way. And, here we are not trying to use a computer, but to learn how to program a computer. But the computer doesn’t know anything except 0’s & 1’s called binary language, and remember not all computers speak the same dialect. That is the reason a program on a desktop computer does not run on an iMac and vice versa.

Let me explain with an example of two blind people, where in the first person (let us call him as Person-A) knows only English and the other person (let us call him as Person-B) knows only Sanskrit. Person-A wants Person-B to draw a sketch? Now, how do you expect these two to communicate with each other, isn’t it difficult. Person-A can’t even show in writing since the Person-B being blind. The only way of communicating is through speech in a known language, and by giving precise instructions.

Now, the only way they both can communicate with each other is by having an interpreter. Now when the Person-A speaks in English, the interpreter then translates it into Sanskrit and repeats it to the Person-B. When the Person-B says something in Sanskrit, the interpreter again translates and repeats the sentence in English to the Person-A. Now with the help of interpreter, both are able to communicate very easily.

By using the interpreter solves our language problem. We still have another problem at our hand. That is Person-A is asking Person-B who is blind to draw a sketch. Though this is not something that is impossible, but it is difficult, unless you know how to instruct. Even if Person-A is able to now communicate, he should know the steps in a proper order and very precisely, otherwise he will get Person-B to draw something, but not what he would be expecting. Person-A should know every minute detail very precisely, since the Person-B is blind, he will just follow whatever Person-A instructs. If the Person-A asks him to draw a line of 1.23 cm, from a particular point with a certain degree, Person-B without even questioning anything just does that without even thinking about the outcome. If Person-A knows how to instruct precisely and exactly in the way it is required, then Person-B will draw what he wants in the way he wants.

If we get back to computer programs, and use the same approach as in the above example everything becomes very simple and easy. Replace Person-A with yourself and Person-B with the computer. Now the first thing you need is an interpreter and the second is you should know what you want and the precise steps that is required, so that you can get the work done.

To Read or Write a Binary code or program is unfortunately very difficult for humans. So we have to use some kind of program that can translate something we instruct in English into Binary language and vice versa. These programs which can translate our instructions in English into Binary code are surprisingly called as an interpreter.

Do these interpreters really understand English?

This will be the question that might be running in your mind now. The answer is Yes & No.

Yes, since we use English words programming languages, and No since computers are still not up to that level so as to understand what we speak be it in any language. This type of language is known as high level languages. By using the term languages, I am not referring to various languages such as English, French, etc., but I am referring to the high level languages that we use to write programs, which are then interpreted and converted into binary code so as to make the computers understand it. High Level languages are covered in more detail in the coming sections.

Should K-12 Schools Teach Computer Programming?

It was once popular in K-12 schools to teach computer programming. Languages like Logo, BASIC and HyperTalk used to be taught widely. With all the pressures that young people must deal with today, how can we justify the notion that programming studies be required in our schools? This article will explore this subject in brief.

One great mistake in the field of human endeavor with respect to computers is to overlook how they can be used to think differently about the world we live in. Because most people are instrumental thinkers, it can be more or less taken for granted that any new tool that is invented will be applied to the kinds of work and ideas that already exist. Certainly the computer certainly has spawned lots of new ideas, but its potential has been largely unrealized. In many classrooms computers are used as way to automate drill and repetition, and not as a medium to help the student learn how to learn better.

In the classroom for various reasons (which may relate to money, politics, ideology, and human nature) computer literacy has been ill-defined and paid lip service to. The ability to turn on a computer and operate various appliances like web browsers, instant messaging clients, word processors and the like without the slightest notion of how they actually work is a potentially harmful form of dependency.

Without being given at least a basic understanding of programming our children will not understand what a computer actually is and how it works, and they will not be truly computer literate. This can result in their subjugation to those who use the computer to run the public and private infrastructure. This is no different than other forms of exploitation within other realm of knowledge. As a simple example, a driver who understands how a car works benefits greatly whether driving on the road, broken down at the roadside, or at the counter at the repair shop.

Possessing a true computer literacy would not be of much value in an industrial age, but we are in an information age and so we are surrounded by computers. They are in our workplaces, our cars, our homes, our appliances and our pockets. We rely on these devices and we trust them to work and to give us good information.

As our children grow up they will need to make wise decisions about how computers are used in critical matters of life. As a real and current example, let’s consider computerized voting machines. There is controversy about whether the convenience of such systems is worth the cost of not being able to able to verify the integrity of their operation. An understanding of how computers really work is crucial to knowing how to think about such things. The people running our own legal and government institutions have not demonstrated a sufficient grasp of the issues, but the next generation could be better prepared if we decide it is important.

Is computer programming helpful for enhancing other kinds of thinking in addition to making people wise about the role that computers play in civil society? Let’s cover a few ways that programming is believed to be helpful to thinking and learning.

Organizational – Programming requires that things be organized. Values, functions, and presentation all must be put in their proper place.

Procedural – Writing instructions for a computer forces the programmer to think and understand procedure. This involves understanding and planning.

Abstract – Once the procedural skills are in place, a more advanced programmer will learn to think abstractly. This involves deciding what the program does (what it really means) and dividing the procedural parts up into general ideas.

Mathematical – Not the simple act of computation (3+4=7) or even algebraic thinking, but a real experience of how numbers can be important in the relationships between ideas.

Critical – To create a computer program it is important to weigh one idea against another, and the act of debugging a computer program requires one to think deductively.

It is important to realize that these ways of thinking can be taught without the use of computers. They can be taught in the course of reading and critical writing, debate, scientific discourse, history, politics, musical studies, and art (does this sound like your school?). Computer programming can enhance the benefits of these other activities.

In summary, given the very pervasive and growing impact of computers in our world we would be wrong not to provide our children with a profound understanding of computers and how their lives will be impacted. What’s more, the other ways in which programming improves thinking are useful and enriching in many wide-ranging ways.

What Are the Benefits of Pursuing Computer Programming As a Career?

I would like to share with you some of the benefits of pursuing computer programming as a career, but before we explore these benefits let us look at a quick definition of computer programming.

There are indeed many definitions of computer programming, but to keep things as simple and relevant as possible I would define computer programming as that skill which empowers us to communicate with computers in a language which they understand in order that they can perform specific tasks for us.

Everyday examples of these tasks would be the running of a spreadsheet program, a word processor or an email program. For example a spreadsheet program has to be loaded and activated by a computer before we can use it. When it is loaded and activated the computer is said to be “running” the program.

Hence a computer programmer’s job would be to write the instructions which comprise the spreadsheet program in a language understood by the computer. This set of written instructions is commonly referred to as a software application or computer program.

Because computers are a lot smaller cheaper and more numerous than that which obtained a couple of decades ago, we find that there are many more potential clients who need various applications.

More importantly with the widespread availability of the internet a lot of these computers are connected together. This is why a career as a computer programmer is definitely worthy of your consideration.

However having said all this we must remember that computer programming is not for everyone, but if you do fit the bill then a whole new world awaits you and you will find yourself limited mainly by your own creativity and imagination.

Now here are some of the benefits of pursuing computer programming as a career.

1. As a computer programmer there is generally a strong demand and hence a higher likelihood of either getting a job or remaining in employment if you already have one.

2. While working in this space you will generally find that flexible working hours is an option.

3. There is in many cases the potential ability to work almost anywhere rather than having to commute.

4. The computer programming space is generally a results driven environment rather than being politically driven – although we can never completely escape politics because we are human.

5. It can be quite lucrative as a career to pursue.

6. There will frequently be the opportunity to work in a team with other like-minded individuals.

7. You will have the freedom to work on your own for extended periods of time when necessary or desired.

8. You will have the mobility to move around various industries depending on your preference and also where you want to live.

We have only scratched the surface here because there are many more benefits to explore. Actually I will write a few more articles to cover some of these points in greater detail so please watch out for them!

Computer Programming Concepts For Beginners – The Basic Procedures Involved

The process of instructing or telling a computer what to do is called computer programming. It involves writing valuable, sustainable, extensible commands that can be read by a computing system to do a significant task. Programming can be achieved using one or some of the different languages dubbed as programming languages. Since one instruction is not enough for a computer to perform something substantial, you need to come up with a set of instructions, known as programs, and submit it to the computer to be able to complete a task. For beginners, learning programming concepts as well as the processes in making computer programs isn’t a piece of cake; it requires know-how and programming skills.

The lowest form of coding a novice programmer like you can do is the machine code. This code is written in binary and it uses a series of “0’s” and “1’s”. But just because it is know as the lowest form of code doesn’t mean it is the easiest to do. Higher code forms like Java, C, and C are made to make it easier for anyone to learn and use compared the machine code.

For the newbies to know what they should expect from their chosen field, here are the procedures involved in computer programming:

1. Developing a program
In this stage, the programmer, whether novice or experienced, usually work with internet marketers, sociologists, or other individuals to find out the program needed by the market to be able to work better at home or in the workplace. The features of the programs are then created from the suggestions of the other people involved. It is the programmer who’ll determine the feasibility of the suggested features.

2. Choosing the Right Language
Depending on the programs you need to develop and your knowledge of the language, you now need to select the right language you will use. Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) and Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) are the two Internet languages commonly used by programmers. HTML is ideal if you are developing a basic web page while PHP are for the applications or things that you actually don’t see happening. Other languages you can use are CSS, Visual Basic, MySQL, C, C, Java, and many others. Programmers frequently use different languages in a single program since each of them has unique functions.

3. Writing the script or coding the program
Once the features of a certain program are made final, the programmer should now start working on it. This involves coding the program or writing the script to perform particular actions by means of a computer language.

4. Testing the program
After coding the program, it needs to be tested before it will be released. Programmers usually apply this program in various operating systems to test its ability to function. If the program works well, it will then be released in beta version.

5. Troubleshooting errors
Along with the release of the program’s beta version, is a request for users to report any bugs or errors they encounter so they can be fixed right away.

Computer programming is by no mean easy. You need to be armed first with the basics before you should move on to the next and more crucial step. The best way to learn the ins and outs of computer programming and programming concepts for beginners is to go to schools or to take programming tutorials.

Learning Computer Programming – The Right Approach Which Most Don’t Follow

I regard programming as the most interesting subject on the earth. But, to my dismay, most of the students undergoing some computer programming training course, freshers, and even experienced programmers I come across exhibit programming skills much below my expectations.

I think this happens because while beginning computer programming, students miss the right approach. Programming is a different type of subject – it requires a different approach. Beginning computer programming without really understanding how to learn programming is disastrous. But, surprisingly, most of the computer programming training courses I have seen begin abruptly, without addressing this first. If you search on Google, you will find numerous articles and tutorials for learning programming. But, I am yet to find one which really touches the basics, so that the foundation of the student is properly built.

What is Programming?

In simple terms, programming is teaching somebody how to do a task. Obvious examples are

  • teaching a child how to add some numbers
  • teaching a housewife how to prepare some recipe
  • any teaching under the earth that you can imagine

For programming human beings, we use some language, such as English, French, Hindi. For programming computers, we use some language computers understand. Some examples of computer languages are C, Pascal, Python, Java.

Human beings are very intelligent and hence human languages like English are extremely complex. The same statement might mean different things in different scenario in English. In contrast, computers are the stupidest beings in the world, and so the language used to teach them are quite simple. So, for a human being like you, learning a computer language is really easy and fun. And, once you know one computer language, learning another is as easy as knowing few more words.

Computer Programming Basics – Getting Started the Easy Way

A computer program is made up of a chain of instructions a computer has to perform. These instructions may come with other important data that’s needed to carry out those instructions. Hence, the process of programming involves the defining of the instructions and the data. For you to come up with data for your computer, you should be familiar with computer programming basics and the datas three fundamental elements:

1. Instructions that need to be carried out.
2. Order in which the instructions are to be carried out.
3. Data needed to do the instructions.

The first stage of computer programming basically involves paper processes. In this phase, you don’t even need to work using a computer, however if you use a word processor that will enable you to write your work to a disk file rather than in a piece of paper. You need to do this so you can figure out clearly and more specifically, what you want your computer to perform before you begin to instruct the computer to execute it.

Bear in mind that the computer will follow the instructions exactly as given. It can’t say what you want; it can rather do what you want it to do. So before your program comes close to a computer, you need to do several steps which include:

– Defining the problem
Before you instruct the computer what to do, you must first be familiar with it. You need to clearly tell the computer what it needs to accomplish or to generate as the outcome of all the activities it will perform.

– Identifying the solution
If you already know what the computer will produce as an end result, you should take a close look at the information you have, and determine the information that you require. There’s also a need for you to define the logical procedures, equations, and other methods you have to utilize so you can manipulate the raw input data into the end result you want to achieve.

– Mapping the solution
This stage in computer programming has to be laid out in proper order. Don’t forget that the sequence in which actions are used is as vital as the actions themselves. When organizing the solution into the right order, you will be putting choices into consideration.

When you’re done defining the problem as well as designing and mapping the solution, the next thing you need to do is to begin with the task of writing the program code into one or a couple of computer language(s). But before you proceed, you must first decide on the possible languages you need to use as well as the particular computer platform.

Usually, computer languages are optimized for various kinds of tasks. It is, hence, important to select first the language that will best suit the task required. Indeed, learning computer programming basics is the first step a wannabe programmer has to arm himself with, especially if he wants to pursue a career in the said field.

Computer Programming For Beginners – Integral Parts of Programming Languages

Are you new in the field of computer programming? Then it is very important to know and understand the common concepts and principles involved in such field. While computer programming for beginners comes with a certain level of difficulty, it is still achievable especially if you are equipped with the basic principles and concepts.

Writing a program involves storing data as well as manipulating it by means of a series of instructions. Included in the data are time and countable factors such as names, dates, and descriptions. By means of data types, you’ll be able to find out how a data must be stored and used.

Most programming languages such as C, C#, C , Visual Basic, and Java have integral parts which novice programmers need to get acquainted with. Among such parts are:

  • Variables

Wannabe programmers have to understand that variables provide them with momentary storeroom for any information needed while the program is used. Variables also play a great role in moving information from one section of the program to another. There’s also the so-called local variable which can be accessed or modified by a specified portion of a program and global variables which are accessible to any part of the program.

  • Data types

Any computer language comes with data types because they help maintain information contained in the program. However, programming languages have some restrictions on the data types they provide. Among the popular data types are characters, pointers, numbers, and strings. Numbers come in either floating points or integers. String data conceals internals that can be manipulated via exposed functions. Additionally, character data type stocks up numbers, symbols, letters, and spaces while the pointer means a piece of memory which can also be utilized for storing arrays.

  • Output

Since it is an important part of any programming language, it is advisable that you have a good understanding of the various types of outputs in majority of the computer programming languages. One of the popular types is text output, which provides a simple means of revealing the result of a particular computer program. Graphical output is a bit difficult and it needs higher resolution.

  • Testing conditions

These allow you to find out the path through a program by implementing a code with value as the basis. This value, which can be variable, another expression, or constant, is compared against an expression. One example of a testing condition statement is “if”. In case the validations became unsuccessful, many computer languages let you define a chunk of code that needs to be executed using “else” statement.

Aside from the indispensable elements of programming languages, computer programming for beginners also requires you to be familiar of the different language categories which include compiled languages, mark-up languages, and programming languages. It is also wise to have full understanding of the general principles and concepts behind each and every programming language. All of these factors are very much useful in helping you become an expert in a particular programming language or in computer programming in general.

Online Computer Programming Degrees – How to Find an Accredited School With a Solid Curriculum

An online computer programming degree can help prepare you for a career as an applications consultant, applications programmer, database programmer, java programmer, lead programmer, mainframe programmer, systems consultant or programmer, web developer or systems analyst.

Although job growth in this field is expected to decline for the 2008-2018 decade, employers are still in desperate need of programmers with strong technical skills, language skills, and proficiency in English. Employers need English-speaking programmers and workers who are knowledgeable about the way U.S. businesses operate in order to meet the company’s specific programming requirements.

To get started on your career, you should enroll in an accredited online computer programming or business degree program with a technology focus. If you prefer to complete only a portion your degree online and the other on-campus, choose the blended format (online and on-campus). Most traditional colleges and universities offer both options, as well as specialty colleges, business schools, and some technical schools.

Before enrolling in any degree program, whether traditional, blended, or online, you should check to make sure the program is accredited by an agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education (Ed.gov). The top accrediting bodies for business schools, technical schools, and traditional colleges and universities include:

-Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)
-Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP)
-Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA)
-Distance Education and Training Council (DETC)
-The National Association of Schools of Art and Design (NASAD)
-Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (regional)
-New England Association of Schools and Colleges (regional)
-North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (regional)
-Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (regional)
-Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (regional)
-Western Association of Schools and Colleges (regional)

In addition to verifying accreditation, spend some time reviewing curriculum and admissions requirements. If you are considering an online computer programming degree program, it is important to note that the traditional computer programming curriculum is still the standard in the academic world. Required major core courses for accredited computer programming degrees are as follows:

-Computer Science I
-Computer Science II
-Assembly Language Programming
-Data Structures and Algorithms
-Operating System
-Programming Languages
-Analysis of Algorithms
-Automata and Formal Languages
-Systems Architecture
-Computer Engineering
-Software Engineering
-Digital and Computer Analysis and Design
-Technical Writing

Algebra (abstract and linear), mathematical statistics, mathematical modeling, probability, differential equations, and discrete mathematics are also on the menu.

When reviewing admission requirements, check to make sure the school requests a completed admissions application, official test scores, official transcripts, recommendation letters, and an application essay. Most accredited computer programming degree programs require no less than a 3.00 GPA.

Computer Programing

Basic Computer Programing

In this article, we are going to present computer programing and discover how it may be applied to command the way your computer operates. Generally, computer beginners aren’t concerned in controlling the computer, new computer users are commonly concerned in learning more about how it all works. Nevertheless they may be surprised to learn that computer programing increases computer knowledge as a whole and it can assist to decrease the fearfulness and intimidation associated with using a new computer.

Computer programing is creating a succession of commands that enable the computer to do some actions. The people who program computers (called Computer Programers) use a programing language to communicate with a computer. You might have heard of some of these languages in the past such as Visual Basic, C++, or Fortran. There are hundreds of other programing language and neither one is best than the other. Just about all of them are capable of executing the same tasks and accomplishing the same goals. A programmer chooses one language by a simple preference.

Each of these languages differ by the way they communicate with a computer, the commands that they abide by are very specific. Not a single command of one language can be exchanged with the commands or language of another. But all of them can be used to control a computer.

At present it would be impossible to teach you how to program any language in a single article or lesson. But we can still introduce you to some of programing’s most basic concepts – starting with the commands. Commands are the instructions that a computer conforms to perform an action. To make them work inside of a program, programmers assign commands to objects like buttons for example.

The commands in a program are pretty worthless unless they have some data to pursue so programmers either give the programs some information to work with (list of names or numbers for example) or they make the program generate it’s own data. Occasionally, the data comes from an outside source like the Internet or the computer that the program resides. The data that a program receives is called input and data that the program generates is called output.

Other times, the data is unknown. If the program were working with a simple algebra equation like, “x + 5 = y,” the variables “x” and “y” would be unidentified pieces of data. Or if a program were to calculate a date “x” days from now, the variable “x” would be an unidentified piece of data until we tell the program what “x” is. In programming, it’s sometimes required to work with unidentified pieces of data.

That’s when conditions are convenient,conditions allow a program to execute an action based on the event of a previous command. Using this type of command, we could instruct a program to do one thing if the “x” variable in our latter example turned out to be 9 days, and then do different thing if the variable turned out to be 31 days.

Commands, data, variables, and conditions help build the most simple programs and there are certainly more components of any programming language. But when they’re typed into a programing language and compiled to create an executable file (a file ending with the .exe extension), they turn into a software application.

As we mentioned earlier, you can use a programing language to control your computer. By using simple commands, you can program your computer to perform mathematical tasks, fill out web forms, compose an email message and send it off, or any number of other things. If you’re interested, you may find Visual Basic one of the most easiest computer programing languages to learn. Visual Basic is an object-oriented programing language and it automatically codes much of a program the minute a programmer drags a button onto a screen.

Computer Programming Basics – Language You Can Use in Creating Programs

Individuals who want to learn computer programming and the languages that can be used in making programs must first be familiar with the basics. Languages employed in programming should be one of your primary considerations. Prior to creating programs, it is crucial that you know the different types and levels of programming languages. Among these are:

1. Machine Level Language
We all know that computers work in bits and bytes and it reads and understands binary digits 0 and 1. While you are free to make a program in any language you want, it has to be transformed into the languages of Os and 1s before it can be implemented.

It means you need to write a program or to convert your written program into machine language. And this is no easy task. It is nearly impossible to memorize a long sequence of 0s and 1s for each instruction you wish to be executed.

Yes it is true that before the development of high level languages, the ones used in making programming codes are machine level languages. These days, however, this level of language is not used anymore in designing computer programs.

2. Assembly Level Language
This level of programming is only one level higher than low level or machine languages. This is actually the reason why creating a program using such languages isn’t a piece of cake, although, the programming code produced is pretty understandable.

Until now, there are lots of programs for embedded technology that are created in assembly language. The program that’s responsible in transforming assembly level programs into machine level programs is called the assembler.

3. High Level Language
These computer languages are easier for humans to understand. It entails clear statements for making each instruction. Languages that fall in this category have different purposes. There are languages designed for web programming; some for desktop applications, while others can perform both tasks.

One thing to bear in mind though, high level language isn’t easy for the computer to understand. This is where the importance of an interpreter or a compiler comes in. Such programs transform the programming code into a language form the machine can understand.

Aside from these three basic levels of languages, another generation of programming language is now being designed. This is dubbed as the fourth generation language which is designed for those who have very minimal or no programming experience.

Developers of such language want these inexperienced programmers to learn to prepare their own code. This is also the very reason why high level languages like Java already came with these systems. These enable a person to write a programming code without memorizing every function.

Bear in mind that no matter what programming language you want to learn, you need to have proper understanding of the basics. If you’re not familiar with programming language basics, you will not be able to make a program in that specific language. It is advisable that you take up computer courses so you’ll be able to learn more than just the basics of computer programming.

Computer Programmer Jobs – Are You Interested in Writing Computer Programming?

Computer programs are responsible for designing the instructions that help computers perform their operations, which involves knowing a series of programming languages. When an engineer needs a program designed, they will give their ideas to a programmer who will take these instructions and encode them into a programming language that a computer can understand, such as java or C++.

These professionals will often repair and modify existing programs in order to improve them, and they may use computer assisted software engineering in order to automate some of the process. Programs used will vary widely depending on the type of information that must be transcribed, and simple projects can be done in a few hours, while others can take years to create.

A computer tester will test a program by making sure that it produces the desired results, and they will keep testing it until the performance of the program is adequate. Computer programmers may also work on developing games and other software that is used for financial planning or entertainment, working with a development team in order to create a finished project.

Computer programmers are typically grouped into one of two categories, which can include applications and systems programming. Applications writers are responsible for writing software programs which will perform a specific task such as word processing or a spreadsheet. Systems programming will create operating systems and networking systems upon which other software will run.

Most of these professionals will work 40 hours a week in a fairly low stress job, and telecommuting is becoming a common practice for programming professionals. Most jobs will require a bachelor’s degree in computer science, although those with sufficient skill may be able to bypass such requirements.

In 2017, these individuals had about 430,000 jobs in America, being employed by almost every industry, although in particular they are utilized by software publishers and financial institutions. Over the next decade, computer jobs should declined slowly as increased automation of coding and outsourcing greatly reduces the cost of software design.

In 2007, the Robert Half Technology Firm found that starting salaries for computer programmers in the middle 50th percentile ranged from $55,250 to $90,250.

Computer Programs Copyright Protection in South Africa

INTRODUCTION

This paper gives a modest contribution to the issue of computer programs copyright and its protection under South African law. It uses as a case study the decision of the Supreme Court of Appeal in Haupt T/A Soft Copy v Brewers Marketing Intelligence (Pty) Ltd and Others 2006 (4) SA 458 (SCA) (the Haupt’s case). What is the implication of this decision for South Africa in terms of copyright protection? Is South African copyright protection of software too soft? What consequences this decision can entail as far as software industry is concerned in South Africa? Can it scare off potential investors?

Here are some of the issues the paper is looking at. The paper is divided into three sections. The first section will give a brief view of the case, the second will deal with the concept and regulation of copyrights, finally the third will address the discussion of the case. The paper will end up with a conclusion.

1. FACTS OF THE CASE

Haupt, the appellant, applied to the Cape High Court for an order interdicting the respondents in terms of the Copyright Act of 1978 from infringing his alleged copyright in some computer programs. The High Court held that Haupt’s claim could not be sustained and dismissed the application. The decision of the Cape High Court was reversed by the Supreme Court of Appeal which set an order interdicting the respondents from infringing the appellant’s copyright in the computer programs.

2. ISSUE OF COPYRIGHTS

2.1 Concept of Copyrights

2.1.1 Definition

Copyrights are referred to as rights to ensure protection of information from duplication and distribution. They are a subset of intellectual property rights that aim to create a balance between the rights of an individual against those of the public by conferring the author or creator of a work the exclusive right to control and profit of his work.

2.1.2 Infringement of Copyright

The most relevant infringing activities to computer programs involve “copying”, “adapting” and publicly distributing the work. In each case the activity can be in relation to the whole of the work or a substantial part of it.

2.2 Regulation

Before dealing with the regulation of computer programs copyright in South Africa, regard must be had to the way this question has been addressed in other jurisdictions and internationally, since this matter has a high international scope.

2.2.1 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Computer programs are protected as literary works within the meaning of article 2 of the Berne Convention. Such protection applies to computer programs, whatever may be the mode or the form of their expression (article 4).

The Berne Convention provides that copyright vests in the author of a work (article3).

As illustrated below the approach taken by the WIPO is the general position throughout the world.

2.2.2 Australia

In terms of section 10(1) the Australian Copyright Act of 1968, computer programs are protected as literary works.

2.2.3 United Kingdom

Like in Australia, “literary work” has been extended in the UK Copyright (Computer Programs) Regulations 1992 to include preparatory design material for a computer program.

2.2.4 The European Union

The EU Directive 91/250/EEC of 14 May 1991 on the legal protection of computer programs requires that computer programs and associated design materials be protected under copyright as literary works within the sense of the Berne Convention.

2.2.5 Japan

Japan is one of the rare industrialized countries where computer programs are not protected as literary works. The Japanese Copyright Act 48 of 1970 under articles 21 and 27 grants the author of a computer program the exclusive right to reproduce and adapt his work.

2.2.6 South Africa

Copyrights are regulated in South Africa by the Copyright Act 98 of 1978. This Act provides copyright protection for a wide variety of works, such as literary works, musical works, artistic works, computer programs, etc. and states as a general rule that copyright vests in the person who creates the relevant work. Nevertheless since the amendment of 1992, computer programs gained a special status in terms of which the copyright vests in the person who exercised control over the making of the computer program, rather than the programmer who created the work.

Now that the legal framework of copyright has been set, we can discuss the decision of the Haupt’s case accordingly.

3 DISCUSSION OF THE HAUPT’S CASE

3.1 Establishment of the infringement

As pointed out above this is a case of an alleged infringement of copyright in computer programs.

First, for infringement of copyright to be established, it is submitted that a plaintiff must satisfy two tests:

– a causal connection between the alleged infringement and the copyright work;
– there must be objective similarity

In the case at issue, the infringement is clearly established since these two tests are satisfied, indeed there is a causal connection between the copyright work and the infringement because some portions of the work have been copied, creating therefore an objective similarity.

Nevertheless, the question that can come to one’s mind is how come the program was created by the first respondent and it is the appellant who is considered as the author while there was no employment contract. It is simply because according to the Copyright Amendment Act of 1992, the copyright of computer programs vests not in the programmer who created the program but in the person who exercised the control over the making of the program, which is here the appellant.

No doubt that this decision is consistent with the Copyright Act. But is the approach taken by the Act the most suitable for the protection of copyrights in South Africa?

3.2 Suitability of computer programs copyright protection in South Africa

As noted above, South Africa has taken a position utterly different from most of foreign jurisdictions and the WIPO as well in the issue of computer programs copyright. Indeed, since 1992 computer programs are no longer protected as literary works with the implication that the copyright in the former programs has shifted from the creator of the work to the person exercising control over the making of the program.
What is the rationale of this approach when one knows that copyright is a legal means to encourage and protect human creativity and innovation?

It seems to me a peculiar position, since it takes away all the rationale of copyrights. Roos (“Rabble Rousing for Cyber Heads: Development in South Africa’s IP law and international investment concerns” (No 82/2006), CIPS), on the other hand, contends that the fact that the copyright is shifted from the real creator to the person who exercises control over the making of the program does not really matter since the copyright still exists.

I definitely do not share this position, my personal opinion is that: to award copyright to the wrong person is nothing else that negation of copyright.

But where I agree with Roos is when he states that this decision will not scare off potential investors, since the investors have after all a coinciding interest with the party in which favour the court found.

So, as far as I am concerned, what I can say is that the rationale followed by the legislature in passing the Copyright Amendment Act of 1992 is more economic than copyright oriented. Indeed it strengthens the position of parties already strong by giving them more power and does not really protect nor encourage human creativity by defending the works of the mind.

Is this difference between South Africa and other jurisdictions and international bodies merely superficial?

3.3 South African approach contra international approach

As mentioned by Roos, the mere difference between the South African and the international handling of a computer program should not be confused with the prospect of less protection. Nevertheless does not the difference in this instance amount to discrepancy?

Roos contends that there is no discrepancy since South Africa protects the copyright in computer programs. He contends that the difference is merely superficial.

I do not agree with Roos on this point, I am of the view that the difference is substantial. Indeed, as we have seen in the second section, the WCT protects computer programs as literary works while South Africa protects computer programs as a category of its own. The copyright vests in the creator of the work in terms of the WCT while in South Africa, the copyright vests in the person exercising control over the making of the computer program. That makes all the difference, which definitely amounts to discrepancy.

How can programmers protect themselves against the flaws of the legislation?

3.4 Contractual clauses

It is fortunate that programmers have still a way to protect their copyrights in the computer programs they are creating through contractual clauses stipulating that the copyright vests in them. Indeed, as submitted by Roos, “most programmers with an interest in retaining the copyright should reasonably negotiate that the copyright vests in them”. But are programmers really in a position to negotiate any copyright clause favouring them with parties far more powerful than they are? Therefore the efficiency of these clauses in protecting the programmers’ rights is still to be seen.

CONCLUSION

There is no doubt that the decision of the Supreme Court of Appeal in the Haupt’s case is in compliance with the Copyright Act, so the decision in se is not a bad one but the problem is to be found in the legislation that has made possible this decision. The legislation, as noted in this paper, has taken a wrong approach in protecting the copyright in computer programs that needs to be fixed despite the fact that this is unlikely to scare off potential investors. Thus, in making a final decision on the copyright of computer programs, it is essential that South Africa consider the international situation and adapts its laws accordingly. A purely domestic solution is unlikely to be successful since the multimedia era requires consistency across the legal systems of the world.

Computer Programming – Skills and Traits Programmers Possess

Those who work in computer programming appear to have a certain set of traits that benefit them in their careers. When paired with the skills learned through higher education these traits can help programmers become successful. Computer programmers are able to complete a number of specific duties due to the traits they carry that are beneficial to this type of work. Computer programmers are very detailed thinkers and are able to excel in their positions due to the various traits and skills they possess.

Professionals with ISTJ (Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) personality types have natural skills that are beneficial to this line of work, according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicators (MBTI) assessment personality test. They are focused, observant, and good communicators which are all traits that are beneficial to computer programming. Careers in computer programming require individuals that are interested in and capable of working alone and in teams as well as in structured and orderly environments. Professionals in this field can find work in various businesses such as:

  • Internet Marketing Companies
  • Computer Consultant Businesses

They may also find employment in the:

Engineering Industry

  • Manufacturing Industry

Computer programmers are able to enjoy working on a variety of projects due to the traits and skills they possess. Professionals in this line of work have been found to value tradition and are very family oriented. Computer programming is considered a good career field for those who are observant and practical, and enjoy working long hard hours. As a part of computer education, computer programming is a great field for those who like to solve problems and create new things. Those who have the right personality and wish to enter a career in computer programming can do so by completing research and learning about the training requirements.

The traits that are common in computer programmers and the skills and knowledge that are obtained through higher education can be beneficial to pursuing a successful career. Other common traits can include high intelligence, confidence, dependability, and detail oriented. Skills for employment as a programmer can be obtained by completing online courses in computer networks, database design, computer program writing, and web design and multimedia. All of the personality traits and skills that are obtained through accredited training can help to make a computer programmer that is beneficial to a variety of businesses and corporations.

Those with ISTJ personalities are beneficial to this line of work because they are dependable, detail oriented, and able to complete a number of tasks at once. Multiple opportunities exist for those that have the traits to pursue successful careers in computer programming. Accredited online computer programming schools allow students to pursue an education from the comfort of home. Training possibilities will vary by school or college but will allow students to choose the career, level of training, and specific area of study that will help them match their skills and traits for an exciting career. By receiving a higher education, those with the right personality traits are able to enter into successful positions.

Computer Programming Degree Qualifications

One cannot imagine a world without computers or without the aid of technology. Everything from the banking system to the medical world or governmental services relies on computers and the software that runs on these machines. Because many vital areas have to depend on computers to do their tasks, the need for powerful, no wonder that the demand for reliable software programs is on the rise. There are large differences between the software applications that students make during their training years and the programs needed to work for years without stopping, on different hardware configurations and with different people operating them. It is a very sensitive subject, as there are many areas that need very reliable programs.

Only highly trained and experienced software programmers are able to produce very large, complex, yet very secure software applications. No wonder that these programs cost a lot of money, as a highly experienced software programmer is very well paid. However, in order to become a good programmer, one must have a lot of work and training behind him and an associated degree can always help. No one is born a genius and in this ever-changing world of computer technologies, a good programmer must always be in touch with the latest discoveries and programming languages.

The better qualified you are, the higher your chances of getting a well paid job as a computer programmer and this is indeed the dream for every computer science student. That is why having a computer programming degree is very demanded, as it allows you to enjoy the multiple benefits of being a professional and experienced software programmer.

A computer programming degree is a very precious asset in every resume as it allows you to move forward in your software programmer career, ensuring you a better payment. Having a computer programming degree certifies that you are in touch with the latest trends as well as the latest technologies and documentations. Besides the basic skills of code writing, working with compilers and source codes you can get a degree in related topics, such as database programming languages or web based programming languages. If you are searching for a job, such a computer programming degree in your resume can weight a lot. Of course, aside from code writing and other similar jobs you may always be interested in getting a job as a DSP engineer especially since these jobs are getting paid better and better by the year.

Almost any large university offers its student the possibility to acquire a computer programming degree, as they all have computer science courses. Some universities famous for their degrees are Capella University and Kaplan University. Universities such as these offer a large array of computer programming degrees, two of the most important example being the Bachelor of Science in Information Technology and Programming degree and Introduction to Computer Programming Language Certificate. These two degrees in computer programming degree can make the difference of you obtaining a programmer’s job and a very well paid, specialized programmer’s job. Businesses require the skills of computer programmers to help develop new programs and the need for good programmers is very high.

Program Your Future at Computer Programming Schools

While some head off to college to pursue liberal arts, others will go the tech route into computer programming schools. A career in computer programming can mean many things. From the financial advantages of a lucrative career, a computer programming degree provides professionals with plenty of other opportunities. Some say with a computer programming degree, you’ll never have to worry about your job outlook because computer programming professionals are always in demand. Find out what it takes to get there.

The Hardware of a Career

A career in computer programming can entail various things. While most computer programming degree holders get jobs doing just that, there’s so much more to the career. For starters, a computer programmer is in charge of imputing sequenced instructions in order to direct a computer to do an assigned task or action. In order to achieve this, computer programmers must write, test, and maintain programs that computers must follow in order to perform specific functions. A knowledge of computer networking is important as many programmers will work for companies that have multiple workstations and systems in place. Problem solving is also a key ingredient for someone with a career in computer programming. A computer programmer must develop system solutions using appropriate methodologies and techniques. Those with a computer programming degree with knowledge in computer hardware and computer networking should have a firm grasp of this upon graduation.

The Ins and Outs of a Computer Programming Degree

So what will you learn as a computer programming student? Since computer programmers have to review, analyze, and modify programming systems, he or she must learn the tricks of encoding, testing, debugging, and documenting programs. Although this might sound complicated, a seasoned computer programmer — one with a computer programming degree and experience — has this down to a science. Until then an associate’s computer programming degree in a related area or higher, combined with up to three years of experience in the field will get you there.

A career in computer programming takes more than just the technical mumbo-jumbo. Common concepts, practices, and procedures within a specific field is also beneficial to a computer programmer. Once you’re ready and able (and can land a job), you can expect to earn around $50,979. That’s the median expected salary for an entry level computer programmer in the United States according to the Basic Salary Report, an estimate based on broad national data reported by human resource departments of tens of thousands of employers.

Now that you know what it takes and what you can earn, you can take the first step to computer programming success. Begin by going for an associate or bachelor’s computer programming degree. A degree in computer science is generally what’s required for employment at more prestigious technology companies. Keep in mind science, mathematics, and engineering also provide the kind of base knowledge employers look for (beyond computer programming courses). And don’t forget about specific programming language — employers typically want computer programming professionals to be certified and/or familiar with those they use.

Luxurious Home Furniture

Luxury in the way that you furnish your home

There is a school of thought that says that you should indulge in luxury regardless of whether you can afford it or not. The iconic piece of furniture in the form of the timeless black leather couch is one of the luxuries that you can bring to bear on your house. It is an item that will cost you a significant amount of money. At the same time it oozes class and sophistication. You should not get worried that it is up to you to manage the different elements that go into the creation of the different couches in the home that bring their own flavor to the decorative scheme in the living rooms. They are items that have been done to high specification.

One of the things that will trouble you is cost. You have to rationalize the expenditure that you are going to put on the products for the modern age that is used to improve the appearance of different living spaces within the constraints of the family budget. It might be enough to buy a small car. This might represent an indulgence that is going to set you back in terms of your financial planning. There has to be a reason for this purchase or spouse might query the decision. The first thing that you have to remember is the fact that you are getting good quality. This happens when you purchase the reviewed furniture items that are supposed to give the person a great outlook on the different product items that work in their favor. That justifies the costs when they come in.

It is also unlikely that you will have the need to buy similar items in the short term when you go for the new products that are used to improve the general stylistic qualities of a given living area. These are beautiful things that are expected to last the home for a significant period of time. In fact the owners are normally so proud of their purchase that they will take extra care to ensure that the item is well protected. This is what is expected and this is what should happen in normal circumstances. You get assurance and confidence when you purchase the Modern furniture center pieces that bring a touch of glamour to the living rooms of ordinary families. Even the people that visit your home will be impressed.

It is up to you to work out whether the efforts that you put into the glamorous furniture items that bring great joy to the home owners are worth it. Your family might feel that the money could be used in a different format but you are just holding on with some stubbornness. These are the risks that you are going to take and it is up to you to ensure that you have the right mix of ingredients to work them out. In short you would expect that your great furniture will make sense. If it does not then you will have wasted a good deal of money. That is something that you should avoid.

Taliesin West – Home Design in the Desert of Scottsdale

There are a number of reasons that Scottsdale, Arizona homes, land and real estate are so highly sought after by families. Here’s one: there’s so much to do, whether your lifestyle leans towards indoor luxuries or outdoor amenities.

For example, internationally renowned architect Frank Lloyd Wright came to Scottsdale in 1937 and purchased what was then barren real estate. Designed as his personal winter home, studio and architectural campus, he built Taliesin West in the lush high Sonoran desert directly in the shadows of the McDowell Mountains in northeast Scottsdale.

Wright created a new form of architecture and established a legacy that still draws visitors from all over the world to Taliesin West, which is a living laboratory of Wright’s ideas. The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation has made many renovations to Taliesin West over the years, giving guests the opportunity to view Wright’s private home which has been restored inside and out to its original appearance.

Ranging from one to three hours, tours of Taliesin West are offered on a regular basis, allowing visitors to experience firsthand Wright’s heralded ability to integrate indoor and outdoor living spaces. Depending on the tour you select, you can visit the Cabaret Theater, Music Pavilion, Kiva and Frank Lloyd Wright’s office, all of which are linked by dramatic terraces, gardens and walkways overlooking the rugged desert and the valley below. Knowledgeable guides explain how the site relates to the surrounding desert real estate and provide a general overview of Wright’s philosophies and theories of design. Twilight tours are offered during select months, providing sightseers with the extraordinary opportunity to view Wright’s one-time home in a nighttime setting when the desert masonry structures, lighted from within, appear as sculptures.

According to the Scottsdale Convention and Visitor’s Bureau, Wright’s vision and influence are seen throughout Scottsdale, including at one of Scottsdale’s premier resort properties, Sanctuary on Camelback Mountain Resort and Spa. This luxurious resort enjoys a history filled with Hollywood celebrities as well as an architectural past linked to the Wright legacy. Representing the cosmopolitan side of Scottsdale with its clean lines and minimalist approach, the property was originally designed by architect Hiram Hudson Benedict, a protégée of Wright. What makes it even more unique is the fact that several stunning private homes are snuggled just steps away from the resort’s front doors.

Vernon Swaback, a former student of Wright’s, also has left an indelible mark on Scottsdale’s real estate landscape. He spent more than two decades studying and working at Taliesin West and over the years has been involved in the design of award-winning hotels, office buildings, recreational facilities and custom homes throughout the Scottsdale, Paradise Valley and Phoenix metropolitan area.

DIY Travel Should Save You Money

Travelers or Travelers today, whether experienced or not, have unlimited choices, so why use a travel agent?

Savvy travelers or travelers, when in need of information relating to specific destinations or activities, seek out travel agents with knowledge, experience and expertise of those destinations and activities.

It is not always easy choosing a travel agent. Many agents are called specialists, but sometimes the qualification to be a specialist is a simple test run by a tourism office or tour operator. Sometimes, these tests do not require the agent to have ‘been there, done that, got the t-shirt.’ Some of these tests are too simple and could harm the reputation of the travel industry if allowed to continue unchecked. A ‘specialist’ can mean, ‘I know the brochure product’ or ‘I have seen a training video’ or ‘I have taken a test given by a Tourism Office.’

If you find a specialist, ask about their expertise. Ask them if they or their colleagues have any direct knowledge, experience and expertise of where you want to go and what you want to do, after all, it is your hard-earned money.

Experts are out there. Find them locally or use the internet and then do your bookings with them. You may have to use different experts for different destinations and activities, just as you would select any other professional for accounting, legal, medical or mechanical matters, except in your lifetime you will probably (or hopefully) spend more on travel than all of the others put together.
Reality Check: “I once tried a major chain of travel centers to get 2 tickets to Mexico from Canada. I was only offered 2 airlines. I then used an internet search and came up with 5 airlines and made my bookings online. Perhaps the travel center did not earn commission or was not able to charge a fee for the booking or did not want an ‘air only’ booking or did they only offer their ‘preferred products’ which limits client choices?”

The Nomad

If you do not need an expert agent you can use the internet to find all kinds of global travel choices and then you can make your booking directly with an online agent or travel operator. If you decide to make your own bookings directly with the travel operator you should not have to pay the full retail price which has a built-in amount for commissions to be paid to sellers of their travel products. Retail agencies that have their own in-house tour products which are sold through other agencies should also be prepared to sell at a net price for a direct booking from a consumer.

It is only fair that agents and agencies earn commissions and fees from travel providers such as hotels, lodges, tours, cruises or mark up their own tour products to allow for a third-party sale. They all have overheads which have to be covered to give local consumers the convenience of local shopping and it is important to support your local businesses as long as they offer excellent pricing and service. At the same time, it is only fair that consumers who make their own bookings directly with travel operators should not have to incur this extra cost. Fair fare prices should be available for consumers who want to handle their own direct bookings.

If you are comfortable with dealing over the internet directly with the travel providers and you want to get fair fare prices you can check out a travel website that was launched in April 2008 that, for members only, offers free travel vouchers that saves them the commission or fee elements in retail travel prices. The site offers thousands of travel vouchers for travel in over 70 countries ranging from simple B&B accommodations to complex adventure travel, all at net of commission prices. This travel site is operated by an online travel club that does not sell travel or make reservations and all monies therefore, are handled directly between the members and the travel operators.

The internet has just about everything a traveler or even a traveler could want, whereas agents and agencies can only offer limited selections of brochures from travel providers and operators. There are thousands of travel businesses that never get to see the inside of a travel agency or brochure, but they would still be prepared to pay commissions to sellers of their products. This online travel club allows travel businesses to promote their products and services at no cost except the requirement to issue travel vouchers that represent the normal commissions and fees in the retail price. 100% of these savings are then passed on to members who do their own direct bookings. As a member, all travel vouchers are free but if you do not want to join there is an associated website that sells the same travel vouchers without requiring a membership fee.

A tip from the website. When you make your own direct bookings, do make sure that the time in the time-zone that you are calling is appropriate as “it is embarrassing to wake up a Greek Sea Captain at one in the morning somewhere in the Greek Islands to discuss their listing.” The Nomad at The Top Travel Club.

This site is continually adding new travel selections and as long as you are comfortable and prepared to be a D.I.Y. Traveler or D.I.Y. Traveler over the web, you might find some interesting trips and adventures, some of which are not readily available elsewhere.

In closing, I hope you find the little bits of attempted English language humor humorous and as I consider myself 1 L of a Traveler, I say 2 L with travelers but at last I am happy to have found a web travel centre centered around saving me money. Apologies to both Websters and Oxford dictionaries.

Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Fashion Style

My favorite star of all time would have to be Elizabeth Taylor. To be sassy, bold, confident and passionate like her, is to my mind, the epitome of womanhood). For me, the most famous image throughout her long history in the movies, would be her sultry look, wearing the satin slip-dress and leaning on the door frame, in the movie ‘Cat on a Hot Tin Roof’.

Unbelievably, there are only 3 outfits in the whole of the movie and each time I watch this film, I start searching on EBAY for chiffon, white dress or a pencil skirt.

The famous and brilliant costume designer, Helen Rose, is the hero that was responsible for these simply elegant, classic and memorable styles.

Elizabeth Taylor’s emotional strength was inspirational, especially since she made the movie after the tragic death of her beloved husband, Mike Todd in an air crash. Helen Rose had been by her side throughout the making of the movie, and their relationship grew stronger through this bond, leading to the successful moulding of the movie star into an icon- Elizabeth Taylor. Their long career included other collaborations, such as ‘Butterfield 8’.

‘Cat on a Hot Tin Roof’ certainly made our Liz the main focus. Wearing a short sleeved, cotton shirt and a skin tight, pencil linen skirt, with a figure-hugging belt, she made sure that she was noticed in that movie.

To play opposite the ultra electrifying Paul Newman must have been quite a challenge, since Paul’s presence could certainly steal the limelight from lots of other female stars – but, our Liz certainly held her own. Each time I play the movie, my eyes are always drawn to her, however much I love Paul, he just has to take a back seat.

In that movie, Liz had never been more beautiful, she was such a devastatingly stunning woman. With her curvaceous figure and Helen Rose’s expert tailoring, the simple but classic outfits show just what perfection can be created. The simple shirt and the pencil skirt is expertly highlighted with the Hermes orange-hue leather belt – simplicity in its perfection.

The second outfit is her more famous pose, leaning on the door frame in her white slip-dress, expertly tailored around her curves. How can her husband not have noticed her? Any normal woman would show lumps and bumps with such a shiny satin slip – not our Liz, every part fitted to perfection.

The final outfit was a dress that Helen Rose had fought hard for. The studio had preferred a more plain, cotton dress. The result of Helen Rose’s victory was most stunning: a simple Grecian wrap, around sculpting cuts, with the expert pleating being one of the most copied looks of design history. The white chiffon dress was later produced to be accessible to the women of the world, and aptly called, ‘The Cat’.

Both Practicality and Fashion Style Can Be Obtained by Carrying Tote Bags

More and more women love to use tote bags, because of their practicality and fashionable style. Usually, tote bags are designed to be in large size, which can enable people to carry more things that you may happen to buy at the supermarkets apart from basic personal necessities. For daily use, totes are top choices for women to create trendy and fashionable styles.

Generally speaking, leather is the most preferable material used to make totes. With the material of leather, the quality of the bags can be firmly ensured. Since totes are supposed to carry many things from personal stuff to unexpected items bought anywhere, the quality and durability should be seriously reliable. On the other hand, when you are buying a tote, you need to check the straps to see whether they are made of real leather and whether they can bear the weight of heavy things. If the straps fail to meet the needs, the quality of the bag should be questioned. Sometimes, you can also find tote handbags are made from cotton or canvas.

The design of totes can vary a lot. Still, regarding the practical purpose, many totes are designed with several pockets inside and outside, some with zips on them. Some totes have adjustable straps, which provide great convenience to busy women. The straps of bags in different styles are attached to the bags in different ways, some with the use of clasps and some with buckles.

Without doubt, designer totes always turn out to be top choices for women. You will have no worries about both the style and quality. However, even though the bag is flawless in design and style, you should be careful with the pairing. Only when you pair the bag with the outfit in proper way will the whole style become eye-popping.

Genuine Sheepskin Boots Nourish Your Fashion Style And Passion

Believe it or not, you will never make any achievement if being in a slovenly state of mind or seeming indecorous, let alone raunchy. In order to make sure you will be noticed, loved, esteemed and envied by people alongside you, it’ s a must to keep conscious about how you look anytime. Of course, a fashionable or decent appearance has already become a license for the vast majority of modern people. If you usually look forward to living a more passionate life, spicing up your semblance exactly becomes the first thing you should complete.

Comparing with your statements and actions, your appearance always makes the first impression. Thus, while selecting accessories to decorate your body silhouette and complexion, it’ s important to make sure these tangible items are real accentuation for your personality. Because of the larger options on fashion decorations, most people do feel more difficult to pick out the really desirable items. Then, one safe bet is recommended to you: just follow the latest fashion sense. Of course, it’ s not difficult to detect the most popular trends in such an era when various information spreads in an incredibly fast speed because of the internet. However, do not overdo fashion or elegance. Anytime, this is not a wise idea. Additionally, there is another crucial aspect requiring your notice: what you usually wear on feet can be also an important reflection for your style and economic power. Most conscious people do try to detect something relevant to your individuality and aesthetic appreciation through your shoes. Then, when nippy wind and sharply descending temperature send us signals of winter, it’ s another time to transform your appearance. Have you already gotten some great ideas on your shoes?

Because of the freezing climate, warmth exactly becomes the most significant aspect almost each individual focuses. However, as a fashionable look always contributes a lot to our life and this function has never ceased to be effective, style can not be neglected while adding some new pairs to your closet. Referring to fashionable and cozy shoes in the winter footwear collection, sheepskin boots must pop out. All the while, these shoes are known as perfect blends between style and comfort. To look stylish and take good care of your feet simultaneously throughout those cold days, you may hardly find better alternatives than sheepskin snow boots.

Genuine snow boots are believed to cultivate your fashion style, passion and even life. First, this kind of fashion footwear shows people simple looks, which are totally different with styles you usually find on high-end brand shoes. Designers for sheepskin boots are fashion veterans. They break away from traditional rules while flattering a classy fashion taste. Twinkling sequins are replaced by smooth sheepskin uppers with light sheen oozed out. Appeal on high heels is replaced by exquisiteness & unique sense of elegance shown by chic boots. Nevertheless, it’ s totally believed allure on these understated shoes is second to none. While picking out clothing to match with your snow boots, you will really find the versatility carried by these shoes. They can be finishing touches to a luxurious appearance for the prom, a formal semblance for a launch event and a casual look for a homecoming party. Undoubtedly, whatever type of fashion style you embrace, you can flatter it with chic and sophisticated sheepskin boots this time.

Most of snow boots found on today’ s market are delicate and high-quality. Besides spicing up your winter look by simple, yet dolce styles, they are considered to be faithful mates by most people because of incredible warmth. To be honest, this is true. Real sheepskin boots create dry and snug space with all coldness and dampness repelled. The comfort level has never been surpassed by any other footwear collection. Of course, the long-awaited warmth triggers people’ s passion and makes them more love to go out on a winter weekend morning. Walk out; you may find opportunities to help you better enjoy your life.

Understated snow boots make people look stylish with various suits and keep their feet warm throughout the freezing season. You obtain respect from the crowd due to the admirable appearance. Also, you maintain an exciting mood because of the comfort around your feet anytime. Then, don’ t you think genuine sheepskin boots are great nourishment for a more interesting life?

The Voice and The Music in Commercials Are Sometimes From The Same Man

Everyone knows that commercials use voice-over artists to speak the sales message, and musicians to create the tunes that play in the background, but one man in Los Angeles is doing both jobs.

Meet Scott G, who is recording artist THE G-MAN, whose albums are on iTunes and distributed by independent label Delvian Records.

“It is a thrill to be able to do the voice and music for these giant companies,” G says, referring to Verizon Wireless, Goodrich, and The Auto Club. His voice work and musical compositions are on 4 radio commercials for Verizon Wireless, 8 for aerospace firm Goodrich, and one for Triple-A, The Auto Club.

As the owner of G-Man Music & Radical Radio, and creator of award-winning radio commercials and music for both radio and TV spots, Scott G is very aware of the needs of ad agencies and advertising clients. “The main point of a commercial is dissemination of information,” he points out. “You want your target audience to respond by picking up the phone, clipping a coupon, ordering a product, going online, or simply remembering your product or service. The commercial has to insinuate its way into the consumer’s brain in a very short period of time.”

In addition to his ad and marketing experience, he is very involved with utilizing the web for alternative distribution of his music. Earlier this year, hundreds of websites and newspapers ran a story (“Peer-to-Peer to Launch a Career”) of how The G-Man made history by giving his music away on the Internet, encouraging P2P filesharing of his work, and even sending individual tracks to DJs and remixers so they could create new versions of his songs. This resulted in club play, airplay, an indie record deal, a publishing deal, and worldwide press attention.

Songs by The G-Man have been called “Moby meets Bowie” (by producer Pete Anderson), “Moby meets Devo” (by TV producer Paul Rich), and “The rhythm of machines with melodies of the heart” (by music writer Janis Amy). Released by Delvian Records, The G-Man’s albums are: GRIN GROOVE (2002), ELECTRO BOP (2003) and PLATINUM AGE OF THE REMIX (2004), and each has been hailed as a sonic masterpiece by reviewers. A fourth album, SONIC TONIC, is completed and currently being mastered for release in 2005.

The REMIX album features G-Man songs in dance/trance mixes by Matt Forger, who has worked with Michael Jackson and Paul McCartney, and features tracks that reached #1 in Russia and #5 in Europe. PLATINUM AGE is now in its third month in the top forty on the Masspool DJ Association Dance/Crossover Chart.

Scott is a member of The Recording Academy (NARAS), a creative director of the National Association of Record Industry Professionals (NARIP), and writes about music for many organizations, including MusicDish and the Immedia Wire Service. The G-Man’s songs are on iTunes and Amazon as well as at the following sites:

G-Man’s music and commercial production work for clients such as PayLess Shoes, Warner Bros. Records and more may be played at:

“I love working with clients like Goodrich and Verizon Wireless,” G stated. “They want material that catches your ear without distracting from the spoken message, yet they desire the music to be inherently valuable in its own right.”

The G-Man’s music is on lots of commercials but “you often wouldn’t know it because I work in many different styles,” G states. “The tracks on my albums are electronic-pop but my commercial music is in pop, rock, jazz, electronic, hip-hop, alternative, or ambient. Whatever the project needs is what I compose, and that’s the challenge.”

G-Man Music created a polka last month, something that is about as far removed from The G-Man’s electro pop or dance/rave songs as you can get. “As I said, when it comes to music for commercials, I compose whatever it takes!”

How to Work With Your Lawyer

1. Get organized. Prepare detailed written notes outlining your legal problem or questions. Provide the lawyer all the details, and let he or she decide what is important to your case.

2. Complete and honest disclosure of all facts. It is very important that you provide a complete and honest description of your problem, including information that may be favorable, unfavorable, or embarrassing. Leaving out a minor fact or detail could have a huge negative impact on your case. Only if you fully disclose the facts about your situation can an attorney properly advise you. Remember that there are strict rules that require an attorney to keep your information confidential.

3. Discuss fees. Your attorney will be ready to discuss fees at the first meeting, and you should be ready to do the same. You can and should negotiate fees and discuss payment plans with your attorney. Get your agreement in writing and keep a copy for your file. Most disputes about fees happen because there is no written record of an agreement.

4. Ask a lawyer questions. In order for your attorney to serve you better, you must understand all aspects of your case and the legal process. Understanding the process will help you understand how the lawyer is working and what type of information is needed on your case. But remember, you are paying for your attorney’s time. It is more cost effective to ask several questions at once instead of calling your attorney every time one question comes to mind. You may be charged for each call depending on your fee agreement.

5. Understand what you sign. Before you sign a document, ask your attorney to fully explain to your satisfaction any document. What can be clear and routine to an attorney can be confusing to people without formal legal training.

6. Keep your own records. Ask for copies of all letters and documents prepared on your case. You should also keep the written fee agreement between you and your attorney in the file. You may have to access this information at some point in the future so it is important to maintain records.

7. Legal advice. Give careful and thoughtful consideration to what your attorney advises. The attorney’s judgments are based on legal training and experience. Remember that lawyers cannot work magic. No attorney wins every case, and sometimes the best legal advice may not be what you want to hear. Your attorney will provide advice that has your best legal interests in mind. The central focus of any case is the facts. Each side will have facts that contribute to the outcome of the case. It is the lawyer’s responsibility to make you aware of the potential outcome of your case based on the facts.

HOW DO I PREPARE AND WHAT SHOULD I TAKE TO THE FIRST INTERVIEW?

Plan to go to the first interview with an open mind. You do not have to decide to employ the attorney with whom you are interviewing until you have had time to think about the interview and your experience in communicating with the lawyer.

When you go to your initial consultation, it is important to have with you a written summary, or detailed notes outlining your problem. The notes or summary should include:

1. Names, addresses and phone numbers of all persons or companies involved

2. All documents which are part of your case, including

a. Documents you have received from another attorney

b. Documents you have received from a court

c. Journals

d. Written Correspondence (includes emails)

e. Receipts

f. Contracts

g. Medical bills

h. Repair estimates

i. Checks, etc.

j. Pictures

k. Written notes detailing the history of your situation

The attorney may ask you to deliver written materials in advance of your first interview in order to have adequate time to review them. You may prefer to provide copies rather than originals at the initial interview. Remember that all lawyers are subject to attorney-client privilege and therefore, must maintain any information in strict confidence.

Next, prepare a list of questions for the attorney, such as:

1. Are you specialized and/or experienced in my type of problem?

2. Will you or one of your associates be handling my case?

3. Will you regularly contact me about the status of my case?

4. Will I be provided with copies of all important documents, and will there be a charge for those documents?

5. Will I be able to make the final decision on my case?

6. What is your estimate of time needed to complete my case?

7. What is the hourly billable rate?

8. What amount of retainer is required to request your services?

REMEMBER: When you hire an attorney, the attorney will be working for you. He or she should be genuinely interested in your problem and in giving you the best possible advice. The attorney may not be able to accomplish everything you wish because of the facts or the laws that apply in your case. Many times the best advice an attorney can give will be to avoid court action. He or she may suggest other methods to resolve your matter, such as mediation.

WHAT SHOULD I EXPECT OF MY ATTORNEY?

Here are a few tips about what to expect from your attorney. Your attorney should:

1. Give you candid, honest advice;

2. Tell you the strong and weak points of your case; this includes potential outcomes based on facts and your instructions on how to proceed

3. Keep you informed and follow your instructions, within the bounds of the law;

4. Protect and defend you to the best of his or her ability and to the fullest extent of the law;

5. While representing you, not represent any other client whose interests conflict with yours;

6. Provide you, if you ask, with copies of all letters and documents involved in your case;

7. Provide an itemized bill of all work done for you and all expenses incurred on your behalf.

WHAT WILL MY ATTORNEY EXPECT OF ME?

The attorney will expect you to:

1. Be prompt for court dates and appointments;

2. Let him or her know how to keep in touch with you. If you have a change of address or phone number or place of employment, let your attorney know; and

3. Be completely honest — even if it is embarrassing to tell the truth about your problem.
Remember, what you tell an attorney in private will be kept confidential. Even confessions to past crimes or criminal activity are going to be treated as confidential by your attorney. Exceptions to this rule of strict confidentiality are plans for future crimes and continuing criminal activity or if the attorney believes that you have or will cause injury to a child. Attorneys are required by law to report suspected child abuse.

4. Not withhold any important information during the conversation that could be potentially damaging to your situation. A common tactic is for the other party to discredit you. Therefore, it is crucial that you fully disclose anything you can think of that could be used against you later on in the proceedings. Understand that even with the weight of the facts on your side, the situation could change if information comes out later that gives the advantage to the other party, because this information was not disclosed earlier to the lawyer.

HOW MUCH WILL THE ATTORNEY CHARGE ME FOR HIS OR HER SERVICES?

The attorney’s fee depends upon many variables, such as amount of time, the difficulty of the work, the skill required, the customary fee in your area for similar work, the experience, reputation and ability of the attorney, and whether the fee is a set amount or contingent on the outcome of the case.

Some examples of fee arrangements include:

Flat fee: The attorney may quote you a set amount or standard fee that he or she has arrived at for your type of legal problem. An example of a legal problem that could be covered in a flat-fee matter is an uncontested divorce without children or a simple will. In addition, lawyers usually expect you to pay court costs and to reimburse them for out-of-pocket expenses, such as travel, long distance, postage, courier, or copying expenses. It is important that you find out what any fixed fee covers.

Hourly fee: An attorney may prefer to bill you by the hour and collect an initial retainer. Such fees may vary widely depending upon the complexity of the legal work, the skill of the attorney and whether there are time deadlines. If you agree to an hourly arrangement, you and the attorney could include a provision in your contract requiring the attorney not to exceed a specified amount of time or money without obtaining your permission. Insist that you be kept advised every month of the number of hours that the attorney is spending on your problem. You also have the right to ask for a written explanation of what the attorney did during the hours he or she worked on your case.

Questions about fees that you may want to ask are:

1. Can you give me an estimate of how much this legal matter will cost?

2. Can we have a written fee agreement that sets forth not only my obligation to pay you, but also exactly what services you will provide?

HOW SHOULD I MAKE MY DECISION TO HIRE AN ATTORNEY?

Based on your first interview, you should consider the following factors before agreeing to hire an attorney:

1. Could you communicate effectively with the attorney?

2. Was the attorney clear and easy to understand?

3. Are fees reasonable in comparison with other lawyers’ charges?

4. Did the attorney give clear explanations of how he or she will let you know about progress in your case?

5. If you are not satisfied with this attorney, do not hire him or her. Look elsewhere for legal help.

Latest Games for IOS and Android Users

Any Smartphone user is well acquainted with the games that can be downloaded on the device. It is always about getting the latest and the best available games. For this very reason, one is always on a look out for the latest game releases, especially if they are action packed. While some are available for iOS, others are available for Android users. Let us find out about the latest action games that are available for both the platforms.

Dark Knight Rises

This is a game developed by Gameloft a gaming company known to design games that can be played on Smartphone. Gameloft has designed Dark Knight Rises to be supportive of Smartphone, as it is known for console quality games. As the name suggests Dark Knight Rises is somewhat closer to the movie and you get the chance to play the hero. You get the chance of becoming a caped crusader fighting the bad guys and saving the city. Sounds exciting, there is more, the city depicted in the game is much close to that of Batman Arkham City.

GTA III

This is the III version in the line of GTA and one of the most sought after games. The most exciting feature offered by this game is that of action filled adventure where a gamer needs to take missions against the street criminals. Additionally this version of the game is well supportive of touch-enabled phone. The controls are designed accordingly so that a user can easily play via touch screen phone. Other things include soundtrack and voice acting. Therefore, if you have enough time to spare then this is that game that you can indulge in.

Nova 3

You need not be an iOS user to play this game, as this game is available across both platforms including that of Android. This is a shooter game that gives complete excitement in shooting down along with graphics and the sound effect. Therefore, if you love shooting then this is the game for you. However, like other things this too has a few drawbacks. You may come across occasional glitches or get irked by gaming controls. If you get past these then you will enjoy playing this game, this is definitely for those who love hard-core gaming.

Shadow Gun

If your device runs on Tegra 3 processor then you should indulge in Shadow Gun. This game is a powerful action packed game that can be well played on a Smartphone or a Tab. This game is a shooting game and the graphics are impressive too. If you play this game then you will forget playing console based games for good. A user will be excited to play the role of a bounty hunter and destroy an army full of mutants.

Prince of Persia

Prince of Persia may seem like somewhat close to Prince of Persia. However, here you are not under any kind of time restrain when trying to save a Princess in distress. You have more time at hand as compared to the Prince of Persia did in the move; also, you have the advantage of living the original character. Nevertheless, you will find this game interesting, full of adventures, enhanced skin and various battles to win. On your way to each adventure, you will unfold a new challenge that includes making your way through dungeons and rescuing the Princess. You will find mysterious traps that unravel on your journey that will put you through the test of your acrobatic skills. It also includes swordplay and trickery. So, get ready to find your way through traps, tricks, swordplay and physical combat.

All the above listed games are a few of the most available games; these are available to iOS as well as Android users. These games can be downloaded but are not available for free.

Buying Model Home Furniture – Great Deals and a Lot of Fun

Have you ever wandered through a model home and admired the furniture? Have you seen a piece that would fit perfectly in your house and you wish you could get it? Well you can and for significantly less than buying from a retail furniture store. You can buy model home furniture if you know what you’re doing.

All of the big developers like Pulte, Meritage and Beazer buy attractive furniture for their models to help sell the unit. When the development is completely sold out, they typically auction off the furniture from the model homes. What you need to do is this.

Talk to the sales manager of the development and get an idea when the close out will be and what auction service they will be using. Typically these auction services will only invite the homeowners in the development and members to the auction.

Once you have the auction service name you can look it up on the web and see what it costs to be a member. Usually this is around $30 a year and it gives you the right to be at the auction, provides mailings with times and dates of auctions and displays photos of things to be sold. Once you have this you’re good to go.

The auction is normally held in the largest room in the house. A four model development can easily have 200 items up on the block. These auctions are cash only and normally you have two hours to remove the item from the site. There are no minimum starting bids. The people at the auction determine just what an item is going to go for.

You can save some big bucks on these auctions and it’s a great way to add a new piece for your home on a budget. One excellent idea though is to try to find the piece you are interested in on the internet to see what it would go for from a discount furniture dealer. Armed with that information you’ll be in a better position to bid wisely.

One caution. If you have a full size house and the model is a smallish town home, the furniture may be slightly smaller than standard. Smaller furniture makes a small space look larger and it’s a common marketing practice. Measure the piece you are interested in before you buy it and regret it when you get home.

So you can buy model home furniture and it can actually be fun if you enjoy auctions.